Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. known as Teddy Roosevelt ˈɹoʊ̯.zə.vɛlt, born October 27, 1858, in New York City and died January 6, 1919, in Oyster Bay, New York, was an American statesman, the twenty-sixth president of the United States, serving from 1901 to 1909. He was also a historian, naturalist, explorer, writer and soldier.
A member of the Republican Party, he was successively chief of the New York police force between 1895 and 1897, assistant to the Secretary of the Navy from 1897 to 1898, a volunteer in the Spanish-American War of 1898 where he distinguished himself at the head of his cavalry regiment, the Rough Riders, at the battle of San Juan in Cuba, and then governor of New York State between 1899 and 1900.
Vice-president of the United States under the second term of William McKinley, he succeeded him after his assassination by an anarchist on September 14, 1901 and finished his term until March 3, 1905. Elected in November 1904, Roosevelt then began his own presidential term on March 3, 1905, which he ended on March 3, 1909. In accordance with his commitments, he did not run for another presidential term in November 1908.
Taking the oath of office on September 14, 1901, Theodore Roosevelt took office at the age of 42 years, 10 months and 18 days. He remains to this day the youngest president in the history of the United States. His presidency was marked internationally by his mediation in the Russo-Japanese War, which earned him the Nobel Peace Prize, and his support for the first Hague Conference by using arbitration to resolve a dispute between the United States and Mexico. His so-called Big Stick policy, and the affirmation of the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, justified the U.S. takeover of the Panama Canal. In domestic politics, his term was marked by a proactive policy of preserving natural resources and by the adoption of two important consumer protection laws, the Hepburn Act of 1906, which strengthened the powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission, and the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, which founded the Food and Drug Administration.
In 1912, unhappy with the policies of his successor, the Republican William Howard Taft, he ran as a candidate for the progressive movement. Although he won more votes than President Taft, he divided the Republican camp and allowed the election of the Democratic candidate Woodrow Wilson as President of the United States.
Roosevelt”s effigy has been replicated on Mount Rushmore alongside Presidents George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and Abraham Lincoln.
Family and education
Theodore Roosevelt was the son of Theodore Roosevelt, Sr. and Martha Bulloch (en). The Roosevelts came from aristocratic families of Dutch origin, descended from Nicholas Roosevelt (en), who settled in New Amsterdam in the seventeenth century and whose descendants produced another American president Franklin Delano Roosevelt (a distant cousin of Theodore Roosevelt), who married Theodore”s niece, Eleanor. Roosevelt also has Scottish, Irish, English, German, Welsh and French ancestry.
The Roosevelts live in Manhattan in comfort from the income of their import-export business. From an early age, Theodore Jr. is frail, asthmatic, and regularly suffers from nausea and fever. His wealthy parents educated him in the Calvinist tradition. His poor health often prevented him from going out, and made him a voracious reader. From his youth, he is interested in nature. He spends his summers in the Adirondacks, on Long Island or on the banks of the Hudson River. He became fascinated with zoology and spent his time observing animals, noting his observations in a book and collecting specimens.
In 1869, the Roosevelt couple decided to take the whole family on a Grand Tour of Europe. Theodore Sr. hoped that it would be good for his children, all four of whom had health problems, and for his wife, who had been moping around since the end of the Civil War. They will spend more than a year traveling from country to country, but young Theodore”s health does not improve and he remains skeletal.
After their return, the father pushes his son to strengthen his body, which he does assiduously. Theodore Sr. also had him take taxidermy lessons from John G. Bell, sparking a new passion in him that also led him to take an interest in hunting. After a bad encounter, he also started to learn boxing.
The family embarked on another major foreign trip in 1872, this time including Egypt and the Holy Land. In the spring of 1873, the trip ended in Vienna, Austria, where Theodore Sr. was to attend the World”s Fair. Theodore Jr., accompanied by his brother Elliott and sister Corinne, was sent to a German family in Dresden for the summer to learn German, French and arithmetic.
He entered Harvard University in 1876 where he met Alice Hathaway, the daughter of a banker, whom he married.
Private life and descendants
On October 27, 1880, Theodore Roosevelt had married Alice Hathaway, the daughter of a banker.
She died as a result of the difficult birth of their daughter, Alice Lee Roosevelt (1884-1980).
In 1886, he married Edith Kermit Carow. From their union are born five children:
Theodore Roosevelt began studying law, which he abandoned when he was elected to the New York State Assembly from 1882 to 1884 for the Republican Party. His mother and wife died on February 14, 1884, the latter dying two days after the birth of their daughter, Alice Roosevelt Longworth. Theodore (age 25) retired to a farm in North Dakota to forget these tragedies.
He spent two years there adopting the lifestyle of the American cowboy. “You couldn”t ask for a more attractive life for a healthy young man than on a ranch in those days. It”s really a nice, healthy life; it taught me independence, tenacity and to make decisions quickly… I really and completely enjoyed that life.” This period is very important to his maturation: “I could never have become president without my experiences in North Dakota.” He tried his hand at pioneer and ranching life there. He failed materially, but he acquired the human qualities that would later make him the 26th president of the United States.
Return and war against Spain
In 1886, he returned to New York where he got back into politics, wrote three books and remarried to Edith Kermit Carow who gave him five children. In 1887, he founded the Boone and Crockett Club whose goal was to preserve nature and guarantee hunting. Not appreciating the “dago diplomats”, as he said publicly, he considered the lynching of eleven Italians in New Orleans on March 14, 1891 “rather a good thing”.
President Benjamin Harrison appointed him to a commission on federal civil servants (Civil Service Commission). He then headed the New York City Police Department in 1895. In 1897, President William McKinley appointed him assistant secretary of the Navy, a position where he prepared for the war against Spain. He acted as a “hawk”; he accused Spain of the destruction of the battleship Maine in Cuba (the proof was never brought) and put the Navy on alert without the authorization of President McKinley.
When the war with Spain broke out in 1898, he joined a cavalry regiment, the Rough Riders, and took San Juan Hill in Santiago, gaining a reputation as a hero thanks in part to the journalist Richard Harding Davis, whom he took on board, making Roosevelt the first American president to regularly use the press as a means of communication. He then resumed his political career in New York State, where he was elected governor in 1898. He alienated the Republican Party leadership by fighting corruption, and the Republican Party, in an effort to get rid of him, nominated him for vice-presidential candidate, a position of little importance. He became vice president in 1900 and president the following year after McKinley”s assassination.
He was a Freemason. He also practiced judo, and was one of the first Americans to obtain a brown belt.
President of the United States
On September 14, 1901, President McKinley died from wounds inflicted by an anarchist. In accordance with the U.S. Constitution, Vice President Theodore Roosevelt was inaugurated as the twenty-sixth President of the United States. He was only 42 years old and his rise to power caused his own party to despair over his social ideas.
The American troops withdrew from Cuba on May 20 of the same year, where the first national government was installed. On the following June 28, the law financing the construction of the Panama Canal was passed.
On September 2, 1902, Roosevelt gave a speech on foreign policy in which he used a famous phrase: “You have to speak calmly while holding a big stick” (the “Big Stick” doctrine).
On February 14, 1903, T. Roosevelt created the Department of Commerce and Labor (which later became two separate departments). The first bird sanctuary on Pelican Island, Florida was established on the following March 14.
On November 3, 1903, Roosevelt”s government supported the Panama insurrection against Colombia. The United States recognized Panama”s independence on November 6 and negotiated a treaty that gave them control of the Canal Zone for 100 years in exchange for $10 million and an annual rent of $250,000.
On February 11, 1904, Theodore Roosevelt declared the neutrality of the United States in the war between Russia and Japan.
On June 26, the Republican Party nominated Roosevelt as its presidential candidate, and on November 8, 1904, Roosevelt won the presidential election against Democrat Alton Parker. The Electoral College vote showed a clear split between the southern states, which favored the Democratic Party, and the northern and central states, which favored the Republican Party.
On December 6, 1904, in his annual speech to the U.S. Congress, T. Roosevelt delivered the Roosevelt Corollary, which extended the Monroe Doctrine (1823), with a message summarized by the famous formula “America for Americans,” to the entire Western world, by affirming that the United States would intervene in the event of a major problem that went against its interests.
In application of the interventionist doctrine, the United States took control of the affairs of the Dominican Republic on January 21, 1905. The National Forest Service was created on February 1, 1904.
Theodore Roosevelt”s inauguration for a second term as president was held on March 4, 1905.
On August 22, 1905, he became the first president to make a submarine dive aboard the USS Plunger (SS-2), the second being Truman in 1946.
The war between Russia and Japan ended on September 6, 1905. T. Roosevelt, who served as an arbitrator in this conflict, received the Nobel Peace Prize on December 10, 1906.
At the opening of the Algeciras Conference (April 1906) in Spain, T. Roosevelt attempted to arbitrate the conflict between France and Germany over Morocco. On June 8, 1906, Roosevelt created the first eighteen “national monuments”, protected natural areas. On June 29, he supported a law giving the federal government the power to control rail freight rates. This law limited competition between companies and prevented preferential rates for large industrial groups. On June 30, 1906, he signed a law authorizing the federal government to inspect food factories and requiring manufacturers to list ingredients.
In foreign policy, the Cuban president requested the intervention of American troops following riots. T. Roosevelt sent the army there in October. On November 9, 1906, Roosevelt made an official visit to Puerto Rico and Panama to inspect the work on the canal. This was the first official trip abroad by an American president.
On December 12, Roosevelt appointed Oscar Straus as Secretary of Commerce and Labor. He was the first representative of the Jewish minority to obtain a position in the United States government.
T. Roosevelt signed an immigration law allowing him to ban the Japanese on February 20, 1907.
On October 22, 1907, a financial panic began due to large fluctuations in the stock market. Roosevelt hurriedly returned from his trip to intervene, but the fear of a new depression was persistent. In November Oklahoma was admitted to the American Union; it was the 46th state. In December T. Roosevelt sent a large fleet of the U.S. Navy, the Great White Fleet, on a world tour that lasted until February 1908. The ships were enthusiastically welcomed in many ports and this allowed the United States to show off its power.
On June 20, 1908 T. Roosevelt created Mesa Verde National Park. At the end of his second term, Roosevelt, in accordance with his commitments, did not seek re-election. He left for a safari in Africa where Frederick Selous was his guide. He returned with more than 3,000 trophies of slaughtered animals.
In foreign policy, Theodore Roosevelt, a proponent of the “big stick” policy (“speak softly and carry a big stick”) increased the hold of American influence by taking control of Spanish possessions in the Caribbean and the Pacific Ocean.
On June 29, 1902, Congress ratified President Roosevelt”s decision to resume work on the Isthmus of Panama to build a canal under American control. However, Colombia refused to grant the United States almost total sovereignty over the future canal and the surrounding region. The U.S. ambassador in Bogotá warned that if the treaty was not ratified, “the friendly relations between the two countries would be so seriously jeopardized that the U.S. Congress might take action that would be regretted by any friend of Colombia. On November 3, in the context of the Thousand Day War in Colombia, Panamanian separatists, partly financed by Washington, declared themselves independent from Colombia, with the support of U.S. troops. American warships anchored off the coast prohibited any intervention by the Colombian army.
On November 18, 1903, in New York, the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty was signed, making Panama a protectorate. The United States received a 10-mile wide strip of land on both sides of the canal, for its construction and operation in perpetuity. Sovereignty in the Canal Zone was granted to the United States, Panama being “excluded from the exercise of such sovereign rights, power or authority”. They are also granted a permanent right to interfere in Panamanian internal affairs, and the possibility of military intervention in the event of a breach of public order. This clause became law when it was included in the Constitution, promulgated on February 20, 1904, and drafted with the participation of American consul William I. Buchanan.
He also built the port of Pearl Harbor in Hawaii to strengthen the naval power of the United States. The number of sailors increased from 25,000 to 45,000. In 1904, he formulated the corollary to President Monroe”s doctrine according to which the United States should intervene to defend its interests throughout the world, legitimizing an “international police power” as well as a “preventive intervention” in case of “misdeeds or failures” in Latin America. In the same year, he told Bertha von Suttner, vice-president of the International Peace Bureau and future Nobel Peace Prize winner, that his government recognized its duty to “bring closer the time when the sword will no longer be the arbiter between nations. He personally intervened in the arbitration of the conflict between Russia and Japan, which earned him the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906, and in the conflict between France and Germany on the Moroccan question.
In Europe, he promoted the idea that the United States had a duty to ensure, like Great Britain, that no power became hegemonic, according to the historian Yves Mossé.
T. Roosevelt was in favour of a strong federal power, capable of regulating economic activity. He attacked the big companies that he accused of making profits at the expense of consumers, and initiated proceedings against the big capitalists in the railroads, oil and food industries. The launch of this crusade against the industrial trusts took place in a speech of more than 30 pages delivered in the House of Representatives. Theodore Roosevelt committed himself to enforcing the Sherman Act. Close to the progressive current, he also intervened to arbitrate the struggle between striking miners and the employers; he allowed them to obtain the 8-hour day and higher wages, which he called a “fair deal”. His Square Deal was also a program to help the middle classes and to attack the plutocracy and the trusts.
Theodore Roosevelt was the first president who was truly concerned with the preservation of natural areas and wildlife. He created the basis for the system of national parks, national monuments, and national forests, as well as nature preserves by bringing land under federal control. He was interested in all subjects and founded the National Gallery, for example. Also, in 1902, the National Reclamation Act (or Newlands Act) gave the federal government the ultimate authority for the construction of dams or irrigation projects. In 1906, he passed the Act of the Preservation of American Antiquities. A new federal agency, the Reclamation Service, was created and collaborated with scientists. Water management came under federal control, especially in the western part of the territory. In total, nearly one million square kilometers were taken over and protected by the federal government. During his presidential term, Crater Lake, Wind Cave and Mesa Verde parks were created. In 1908, he made the Grand Canyon a National Monument.
In terms of racial discrimination, he was the first president to appoint a representative of the Jewish minority to a cabinet post. Regarding other minorities, he said at the time, “I would not go so far as to think that the only good Native Americans are the dead Indians, but I think that is true of nine-tenths and I do not wish to worry too much about the tenth.”
Regarding the African Americans, his words include the following: “I have not been able to find a solution to the terrible problem offered by the presence of the Negro on this continent. He is here and cannot be killed or driven away, the only wise, honorable and Christian thing to do is to treat every black man and every white man strictly according to his merits as a man, giving him neither more nor less than he proves himself worthy to have.” On other occasions he described African Americans as “totally unfit for suffrage.” After his presidency, his Progressive Party (a breakaway from the Republican Party) refused at its 1912 convention to adopt support for African American civil rights in its platform.
From 1907 onwards, eugenicists began to practice in several states the forced sterilization of the sick, the unemployed, the poor, the delinquents, the handicapped and the prostitutes, in order to prevent any descendants of the same type. Theodore Roosevelt declared:
“I would very much like to see bad people entirely prevented from reproducing, and when the evil nature of such people is sufficiently manifest, measures should be taken to that end. Criminals should be sterilized and feeble-minded people should be forbidden to have offspring.”
Such a program of coercive sterilizations was indeed implemented in the United States. However, since the laws in this area were set by each state and not by the federal government, T. Roosevelt could not be held responsible. The first attempt to implement such a law, in Michigan, took place in 1897, before T. Roosevelt became president.
After the presidency
In November 1911, a group of Ohio Republicans endorsed Roosevelt for the party”s presidential nomination; supporters included James R. Garfield and Dan Hanna. This endorsement was given by the leaders of President William Howard Taft”s home state. Roosevelt evidently refused to make a statement – requested by Garfield – that he would flatly decline a nomination. Shortly thereafter, Roosevelt said, “I feel very sorry for Taft…. I”m sure he means well, but he means badly, and he doesn”t know how! He is totally unfit to lead and this is a time when we need leaders.” In January 1912, Roosevelt declared, “If the people make a design on me, I will not refuse to serve.” Later that year, Roosevelt spoke before the Ohio Constitutional Convention, openly identifying himself as a progressive and endorsing progressive reforms – even endorsing popular review of state judicial decisions. In response to Roosevelt”s proposals for popular reversal of judicial decisions, Taft declared, “Such extremists are not progressives – they are emotivists or political neurotics.”
Roosevelt began to see himself as the savior of the Republican Party from defeat in the upcoming presidential election. In February 1912, Roosevelt announced in Boston, “I will accept the nomination for the presidency if it is offered me. I hope that, so far as possible, the people may have an opportunity, through direct primaries, to express who will be the nominee.” Elihu Root and Henry Cabot Lodge believed that the division of the party would lead to its defeat in the next election, while Taft believed that he would be defeated either in the Republican primary or in the general election.
The 1912 primary represented the first large-scale use of presidential primaries, a reforming achievement of the progressive movement. The Republican primaries in the South, where party regulars dominated, went for Taft, as did the results in New York, Indiana, Michigan, Kentucky and Massachusetts. Meanwhile, Roosevelt won in Illinois, Minnesota, Nebraska, South Dakota, California, Maryland and Pennsylvania; Roosevelt also won Taft”s home state of Ohio. These primary elections, while demonstrating Roosevelt”s continued popularity with the electorate, were not decisive. The final credentials of state delegates to the national convention were determined by the national committee, which was controlled by party leaders, led by the incumbent president.
Before the 1912 Republican National Convention in Chicago, Roosevelt expressed doubts about his chances of victory, noting that Taft had more delegates and control of the Credentials Committee. His only hope was to convince party leaders that Taft”s appointment would put the election in the hands of the Democrats, but the party leaders were determined not to cede their leadership to Roosevelt. The Credentials Committee awarded Taft almost all of the contested delegates, and Taft won the nomination on the first ballot. Black delegates from the South played a key role: they voted overwhelmingly for Taft and put him over the top. La Follette also aided Taft”s candidacy; he hoped that a deadlocked convention would result in his own nomination, and refused to release his delegates to support Roosevelt
Once his defeat at the Republican convention appeared likely, Roosevelt announced that he would “accept the progressive nomination on a progressive platform and I will fight to the end, win or lose. At the same time, Roosevelt prophetically stated, “My feeling is that the Democrats will probably win if they nominate a progressive.” Building on the Republican Party, Roosevelt and his key allies such as Pinchot and Albert Beveridge created the Progressive Party, structuring it as a permanent organization that would run full tickets at the presidential and state levels. It became known as the Bull Moose Party, after Roosevelt told reporters, “I”m as fit as a bull moose.” At the 1912 Progressive National Convention, Roosevelt exclaimed, “We are at Armageddon and we are fighting for the Lord. California Governor Hiram Johnson was named Roosevelt”s running mate. Roosevelt”s platform echoed his 1907-1908 proposals, calling for vigorous government intervention to protect the people from selfish interests:
“To destroy this invisible government, to dissolve the unholy alliance between corrupt business and politics is the first task of the statesman of the age. This country belongs to the people. Its resources, its affairs, its laws, its institutions, must be used, maintained or changed in the manner most favorable to the general interest. This statement is explicit… Mr. Wilson must know that every monopoly in the United States is opposed to the progressive party…. I challenge him…to name the monopoly that supported the progressive party, whether it was…the Sugar Trust, the US Steel Trust, the Harvester Trust, the Standard Oil Trust, the Tobacco Trust, or any other… Our program was the only one they opposed, and they supported either Mr. Wilson or Mr. Taft.”
Although many Progressive Party supporters in the North were supporters of black civil rights, Roosevelt did not strongly support civil rights and conducted a “lily-white” campaign in the South. Rival all-white and all-black delegations from four Southern states arrived at the Progressive National Convention, and Roosevelt decided to seat the all-white delegations. Nevertheless, he gained little support outside the Republican strongholds in the mountains. Out of nearly 1,100 Southern counties, Roosevelt won two counties in Alabama, one in Arkansas, seven in North Carolina, three in Georgia, 17 in Tennessee, two in Texas, one in Virginia and none in Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi or South Carolina.
On October 14, 1912, while campaigning in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Roosevelt was shot by a saloonkeeper named John Flammang Schrank. The bullet lodged in his chest after penetrating his steel eyeglass case and passing through a thick (50-page) single-fold copy of the speech entitled “Progressive Cause Greater Than Any Individual,” which he was carrying in his jacket. Schrank was immediately disarmed (by Czech immigrant Frank Bukovsky), captured, and could have been lynched if Roosevelt had not shouted for Schrank to remain unharmed. Roosevelt assured the crowd that he was fine, then ordered the police to attend to Schrank and make sure no violence was done to him. As an experienced hunter and anatomist, Roosevelt correctly concluded that since he was not coughing up blood, the bullet had not hit his lung, and he declined any suggestion that he go to the hospital immediately. Instead, he gave the scheduled speech with blood seeping into his shirt. He spoke for 90 minutes before ending his speech and agreeing to receive medical attention. He began by telling the assembled crowd, “Ladies and gentlemen, I don”t know if you understand that I just got shot, but it takes more than that to kill a bull elk.” Afterwards, probes and an X-ray showed that the bullet had lodged in Roosevelt”s chest muscle, but had not penetrated the pleura. Doctors concluded that it would be less dangerous to leave it in place than to try to remove it, and Roosevelt took the bullet with him for the rest of his life.
After the Democrats nominated New Jersey Governor Woodrow Wilson, Roosevelt did not expect to win the general election, as Wilson had set a record attractive to many progressive Democrats who might otherwise have considered voting for Roosevelt. Still, Roosevelt ran a vigorous campaign, and the election turned into a two-way contest between Wilson and Roosevelt despite the presence of William Howard Taft in the race. Roosevelt respected Wilson, but the two men disagreed on a variety of issues; Wilson opposed any federal intervention on women”s suffrage or child labor (which he considered state issues), and attacked Roosevelt”s tolerance of big business.
From December 1913 to April 1914, Theodore Roosevelt led a scientific expedition in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Amazonia. The main purpose of this expedition was to identify about 700 km of the course of a river considered “unknown”, which was then given the name of Rio Roosevelt.
During the First World War, he opposed President Wilson”s policy of neutrality and declared himself in favor of the British and French Allies.
Politically, he was reconciled with the Republican Party, which offered him to be its candidate again in the 1920 presidential election, but he died in Oyster Bay, New York, on January 6, 1919, as a result of tropical fevers he had contracted in the Amazon.
Theodore Roosevelt is considered by Americans to be one of their greatest presidents, which is why he has his effigy carved in the granite of Mount Rushmore, alongside George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and Abraham Lincoln.
He is celebrated by a memorial on Theodore Roosevelt Island in Washington, D.C. He was the subject of another monument in Portland, Oregon, which disappeared in 1942. He is also represented by an equestrian statue, Theodore Roosevelt, Rough Rider, in Portland. This statue was taken down by protesters in October 2020.
On March 18, 1911, Theodore Roosevelt inaugurated a dam that bears his name near Phoenix, Arizona.
There is a national park named after him in North Dakota, Theodore Roosevelt National Park.
In Los Angeles, on Hollywood Boulevard, the Hotel Roosevelt, hosted the first Academy Awards ceremony on May 16, 1929, and was named in his honor.
The 1940 short film Teddy, the Rough Rider won an Academy Award at the 13th Academy Awards. In Portland, Oregon, the Theodore Roosevelt, Rough Rider statue commemorates his time leading the Rough Riders regiment.
He was played by Brian Keith in 1975, alongside Sean Connery and Candice Bergen, in the feature film about an American hostage situation in Morocco, The Lion and the Wind by John Milius.
In the Night at the Museum film series (2007, 2009 and 2015), directed by Shawn Levy, Robin Williams plays a wax statue of Theodore Roosevelt alongside Ben Stiller, who plays a night watchman in a museum whose inanimate beings come to life at night thanks to a magical Egyptian tablet.
The nuclear aircraft carrier Theodore Roosevelt pays tribute to him.
He is one of the personalities of whom John Dos Passos wrote a short biography, within his trilogy U.S.A.
A light rail station in Manila, Philippines is named after him.
In the strategy game Civilization VI (2016), the United States has Theodore Roosevelt as its leader.
A memorial to Quentin Roosevelt, the youngest son of President Theodore Roosevelt (who died in aerial combat on July 14, 1918) has been erected on the territory of Coulonges-Cohan.
History of the bear
There are several anecdotes about the origin of “Teddy Bear”. The most common one is the following: in 1903, Roosevelt came back from a four-day bear hunt with no results. Thinking to please him, the organizers chained a black bear cub to the foot of a tree in order to satisfy the president: outraged by this travesty, Theodore Roosevelt had the animal released. Two Russian emigrants, Rose and Morris Mictchom, immortalized this story by creating a teddy bear that they named Teddy (short for Theodore in English). It was an immediate success and soon after, they created their own workshop, The Ideal Novelty in Toy Co.
According to another version, Roosevelt was chased by a bear and forced to take refuge in a tree. The next day a photograph was published showing the president sitting on a tree fork and being harassed by the bear, with the words Teddy”s bear.
In the comics The Youth of Scrooge written and directed by Keno Don Hugo Rosa, also known as Don Rosa, his main character, Balthazar Scrooge, meets Theodore Roosevelt three times during his youth.