Anne, Queen of Great Britain
gigatos | March 7, 2023
Anne Stuart (Anne Stuart, 6 February 1665, London – 1 August 1714, ibid) was Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland from 8 March 1702. The first monarch of the united kingdom of Great Britain (on May 1, 1707 the kingdoms of England and Scotland formed one sovereign state). She remained the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland until her death. Last member of the Stuart dynasty on the English throne.
Anne was born during the reign of her uncle Charles II, who had no legitimate children. Her father James was first in the line of succession, but was not popular in England because he was a Catholic. Anne and her older sister Mary, next in line of succession, were raised in Protestantism by order of Charles II. After her brother”s death, her father became king, but three years after his accession – in 1688 – he was overthrown in the “Glorious Revolution”. Anne and Mary”s younger brother, James II”s second Catholic son James ”Old Pretender” and his posterity were excluded from the line of succession, sowing the seeds of several Jacobite rebellions in the future. James”s eldest daughter, Queen Mary II, and her husband and cousin, the Protestant William III of Orange, ascended the throne and reigned together.
Although the sisters were close, soon after Mary”s accession to the throne differences arose between them over Anne”s finances, position, and choice of acquaintances, and they drifted apart. William and Mary had no children; after Mary”s death in 1694, William continued to rule on his own. Anne inherited the throne after his death in 1702.
As ruler, Anne favored the policies of the moderate Tories, who shared her Anglican views (unlike their Whig opponents). Nevertheless, the Whigs gained great influence during the War of the Spanish Succession, but in 1710 Anne removed many of them from office. The queen separated from her close friend Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, over political differences.
All her life Anna has suffered from health problems. After her 30th birthday, she began to limp particularly badly and to gain weight rapidly. Despite her marriage to George of Denmark and 17 pregnancies, she died without heirs, becoming the last Stuart monarch. According to the Act of Succession of 1701, George I of the Hanoverian dynasty (who was descended from the Stuarts through his maternal grandmother, Elizabeth, daughter of James I) inherited the throne.
Princess Anne was born at 11:39 p.m. on February 6, 1665, at St. James”s Palace in London. She was the fourth child and second daughter of Prince James, Duke of York (later King James II) and his first wife Anne Hyde. The Duke and Duchess of York had eight children, but only Anne and Mary survived to adulthood. Her father was the younger brother of Charles II, King of England, Scotland and Ireland, and was his heir to the throne. Her mother, however, being the daughter of the Lord Chancellor Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, was “no match” for the prince, having been his mistress while the Stuarts were still in exile.
The newborn was baptized in the Anglican rite at St. James”s Palace Royal Chapel. Her godparents were her older sister Princess Mary, the Duchess of Monmouth, and the Archbishop of Canterbury, Gilbert Sheldon.
As a child, Anne suffered from an eye disease and was sent to France for treatment, where she lived with her paternal grandmother, Queen Henrietta Maria in Château de Colombe near Paris. After the latter”s death in 1669, Anne took up residence with her aunt, Henrietta, Duchess of Orleans, after whose sudden death in 1670 she returned to England. Her mother died the following year.
As was the custom in royal families, Anne and her sister lived and were raised separately from their father on their own estate at Richmond. They were raised in the Protestant tradition, despite the fact that their parents were Catholics, at the behest of their ruling monarch, Uncle Charles II. The children were cared for by relatives of the Duke of Buckingham, Edward Villiers and his wife, Frances. The emphasis in education was on the teachings of the Church of England. Bishop Henry Compton of London was appointed as Anna”s tutor.
Around 1671 Anne met Sarah Jennings, who later became her close friend and one of her most influential advisers. Around 1678 Jennings married John Churchill (future Duke of Marlborough). His sister Arabella Churchill was mistress of the Duke James of York (becoming one during Anne Hyde”s lifetime), and Churchill himself later became one of Anne”s chief generals.
In 1673 the Duke of York”s conversion to Catholicism was announced and he married the Catholic princess Maria of Modena, who was only six and a half years older than Anne. Charles II had no legitimate children, and so the Duke of York was next in line of succession, followed by his two surviving daughters from his first marriage, Mary and Anne. Ten children were born to the new Duchess of York over the next ten years, but they were all born dead or died in childhood, so Mary and Anne remained second and third in line to the throne. All evidence suggests that Anne and her stepmother got along well, and that the Duke of York was a conscientious and loving father.
On November 4, 1677, her older sister Mary married her maternal cousin, Prince William III of Orange, who belonged to the influential Protestant dynasty of the Dutch Republic. The wedding took place at St James”s Palace, but Anne was ill with smallpox and was not present. When she recovered, Mary had already left for the Netherlands. Lady Frances Willers also contracted smallpox and died, and Anne”s new governess was appointed her late mother”s sister-in-law, Henrietta Hyde (wife of Lawrence Hyde”s brother). A year later Anne and her stepmother visited Mary in Holland, staying two weeks.
In March 1679, on the wave of anti-Catholic outrage caused by the Papist conspiracy, the Dukes of York left for Brussels, where Anne visited them in late August. In October they returned to Britain: the Duke and Duchess went to Scotland, and Anne went to England. She then settled with her father and stepmother at Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh (from July 1681 until May 1682. This was her last journey outside England.
Anne”s other cousin, George, Elector of Hanover (her future successor to the throne, George I) had been in London for three months since December 1680, prompting rumors of possible marriage negotiations between them. Historian Edward Cregg dismisses these rumors as unfounded, since her father had essentially been expelled from the court and the Hanoverians planned to marry George to his cousin Sophia Dorothea of Celle, with the goal of uniting the Hanoverian domains (which they eventually did). Other rumors suggested that Anne was courted by Lord Magrave (later Duke of Buckingham and Normanby), although he denied it. As a result of the gossip, he was suspended from the court.
Since George of Hanover had dropped out of the list of potential suitors, Charles II began to look for another suitable member of the royal dynasty who would satisfy both the Protestant subjects and Louis XIV”s Catholic ally. A suitable candidate was provided by Protestant Denmark, which was an ally of France. Louis XIV approved an alliance between England and Denmark, limiting the power of the Dutch. The marriage treaty between Anne and Prince George of Denmark (the younger brother of King Christian V) was negotiated by Anne”s uncle Lawrence Hyde (bestowed with the title of Earl of Rochester) and Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland, English secretary of state for the Northern Department. Anne”s father willingly agreed to the wedding because it limited the influence of his other son-in-law, William of Orange, who was unhappy with the situation.
On July 28, 1683, Bishop Compton performed the marriage ceremony of Anne and George of Denmark. Although it was an arranged marriage, they were faithful and devoted spouses. They were given several Whitehall buildings, known as the Cockpit, as their London residence. Sarah Churchill became one of Anne”s chief ladies-in-waiting. A few months after the wedding, Anne became pregnant, but the child was stillborn in May. Anne recuperated in the spa town of Tunbridge Wales and over the next two years gave birth one after the other to two daughters, Maria and Anne Sophia.
After the death of King Charles II in 1685, Anne”s father took the English and Irish thrones as “James II” and the Scottish throne as “James VII. To the dismay of his subjects, the new king began to appoint Catholics to military and administrative posts, violating the “Act of Oath” enacted specifically to avoid such actions. The Protestant Anne shared everyone”s apprehension at the king”s behavior. Because her sister Mary lived with her husband in the Netherlands, Anne and her husband and children were the only members of the royal family to attend Protestant religious services.
When Jacob tried to get Anna to baptize her newborn daughter into the Catholic faith, she cried.
“The Roman church is evil and dangerous,” she wrote to her sister, “their ceremonies – most of them – are almost outright idolatry.
Anne”s relationship with her father and stepmother soured when James set out to reduce the influence of the Anglican Church.
Early in 1687 a series of tragic events occurred in just a few days: Anne suffered a miscarriage, her husband contracted smallpox, and their two youngest daughters died of the same disease. According to Lady Rachel Russell”s recollection, the young couple “took it very hard … Sometimes they cried … then sat in silence, hand in hand – he in bed, sick, she his most caring nurse imaginable.” A year later she gave birth to another dead child.
Public anxiety about James”s Catholic predilections grew stronger when his wife Mary of Modena became pregnant for the first time after his accession to the throne. In letters to her sister, Anne expresses suspicions that the queen was faking a pregnancy to present a false heir. She writes:
“They will stop at nothing, even if it is so ungodly, if it furthers their interests … there may be a foul play planned here.”
In April 1688 Anne had another miscarriage and left London for the spa town of Bath for treatment.
The queen gave birth to a son named James Francis Edward on June 10, 1688. As a boy, he had priority in the succession over his older sisters Mary and Anne, so the prospect of another Catholic occupying the throne was obvious. Anne herself remained at Bath at the time of his birth, so she was not present at the birth, which left her convinced that the child had been switched. She may have deliberately left the capital to avoid attending the event, or she may indeed have been ill. It is also possible that James wanted to remove all Protestants, including his daughter, from state affairs.
“I will never know for sure,” Anna wrote to Sister Mary, “whether this child is true or false. He may be our brother, but only God knows … whatever changes may occur, you will always find me steadfast in my faith and devoted to you.”
To dispel rumors that the boy was a changeling, Jacob invited 40 witnesses (according to the ceremonial attendance at the birth) to a meeting of the Privy Council. Anna claimed that she could not attend because she was pregnant herself (although she was not), and then refused to read the testimony, explaining that it was “not necessary.
The Glorious Revolution
Dissatisfaction with the actions of James II was growing in the country, and the birth of his son was one of the last drops. On 5 November 1688 Prince William of Orange invaded England to overthrow his father-in-law – the Glorious Revolution began.
Anne is believed to have been aware of her sister”s and her husband”s plans. Although her father forbade Anne to visit Mary in the spring of 1687, the sisters corresponded, so Anne was aware of the plans for intervention she refused to support her father after Wilhelm landed and wrote a letter to her relative on November 18 approving his actions.
On November 24, Churchill refused to serve the king. Anne”s husband Prince George followed suit that evening, and the following evening the king ordered Sarah Churchill”s confinement under house arrest at St. James”s Palace. Anne and Sarah left Whitehall by the back stairs, entrusting themselves to the protection of Bishop Compton. They spent one night in his house and left for Nottingham, where they arrived on December 1. Two weeks later, accompanied by a large retinue, Anne arrived in Oxford, where she met her husband. “God help me,” Jacob exclaimed when he learned of his daughter”s escape on November 26, “Even my children have forsaken me. On December 19, Anne returned to London, and on December 23, the king fled to France.
In January 1689 a parliament was convened in special order, which ruled that the king, having fled, had abdicated the throne, so the thrones of England and Ireland were now vacant. A similar decision was taken by the Scottish Parliament. William and Mary were proclaimed rulers of all three kingdoms (as co-rulers).
The Bill of Rights of 1689 established the order of succession. Mary”s descendants were first in line, followed by Anne and her descendants, and then William”s descendants from possible other marriages. On July 24, 1689, Anne had a son, William, Duke of Gloucester, who was weak in health but survived. Since the new monarchs had no children, it was thought that Anne”s son would eventually inherit the crown.
Soon after assuming the throne, William and Mary rewarded John Churchill with the title of Earl of Marlborough, and Prince George was granted the title Duke of Cumberland. Anne requested permission to use Richmond Palace and a parliamentary allowance. The new monarchs refused the first and unsuccessfully resisted the second request, causing a rift between the sisters. Anne”s resentment increased when William did not allow Prince George to serve in the English army. The monarchs feared that if Anne gained financial independence, they might lose control over her and political opposition would gather around her.
Around this time, Anna asked Sarah Churchill to call each other “Mrs. Morley” and “Mrs. Freeman” respectively in private conversations, so that they might feel equal.
In January 1692, suspecting that Marlborough had secret ties with Jacobite sympathizers (Jacobites), William and Mary removed the duke from all positions. To publicly show her support for Marlborough, Anne invited Sarah to a social event at the palace and disregarded Mary”s demand for her resignation. Lady Marlborough was subsequently removed from court by the Lord Chamberlain after all, and Anne, angry, left the royal palace and took up residence at Syon House, the Duke of Somerset”s home.
There Anna was deprived of an honor guard. Courtiers were forbidden to visit her, the civil authorities were ordered to ignore her existence. In April Anne gave birth to a son who died before he had even lived a few minutes. Mary visited her, but offered no support, only another reproach for her friendship with Sarah. Later that year Anne moved to Berkeley House in Piccadilly, London, where in March 1693 she gave birth to a dead baby girl.
Queen Mary died of smallpox in 1694. William continued to rule alone. Anne was his heir (since any children he might have had with his new wife would have been inferior to her in the line of succession). The king and Anne were publicly reconciled. He returned the honors due her, allowed her to live at St. James”s Palace and gave her the jewels of the late Mary, but excluded her from the government and did not appoint her regent while she was abroad. Three months later William restored Marlborough to all posts. When Anne began to reappear at court, her Berkeley House was frequented by courtiers who had previously avoided meeting Anne and her husband.
In 1696 Anne wrote to her father, the deposed King James, who was in exile on the Continent, asking for permission to succeed William. In doing so she (he says) promised to return power to his offspring (from his second marriage) if the occasion arose. But Jacob refused her request. Perhaps with this letter Anna wanted to guarantee that she would be the next monarch and that her father would not claim the throne.
The Act of Succession
Anna”s last pregnancy ended in a miscarriage on January 25, 1700. She had at least 17 pregnancies in all, and 12 times she miscarried or had a stillborn child. Of the 5 children born alive, 4 died before they were 2 years old.
Anne (at least since 1698) suffered from attacks of gout, pain in her limbs, stomach and head. Based on her childbearing problems and other symptoms described in sources, she is now presumably diagnosed as having lupus erythematosus. The assumption that she had salpingitis is supported by the fact that the onset of some of her symptoms coincided with her penultimate pregnancy. Other theories of her failed pregnancies include listeriosis, diabetes, intrauterine retardation, and Rh conflict (Rh conflict, however, tends to worsen from one pregnancy to the next, yet her only son William, who had passed infancy, was born after a series of miscarriages). The experts also rejected versions that she had syphilis, porphyria, or pelvic deformity as inconsistent with her medical history.
Her only surviving child, William, Duke of Gloucester, died on July 30, 1700, at age 11. Anne and her husband were “overwhelmed with grief. She ordered her household to mourn every anniversary of his death. Since William had no children and the Duke of Gloucester died, Anne was the only person in the line of succession established by the Bill of Rights of 1689.
To solve the crisis of succession and to prevent a Catholic restoration (since the ex-king James was still alive and had even produced another daughter, Louisa, in exile), the English parliament passed the Act of Succession in 1701. According to it, after Anne, the crown of England and Ireland was to be inherited by the princess Sophia of Hanover and her Protestant descendants. Sophia was the granddaughter of James I (through his daughter Elizabeth, sister of Charles I), that is, she was a cousin of James II. Since Catholics could not inherit the English throne, over 50 claimants closer in blood to Anne lost their right to the throne. The exiled James II died in September 1701. His widow, Anne”s stepmother, the former Queen Mary of Modena, wrote to Anne that her father had forgiven her and reminded her of her promise to try to regain the Stuarts” rights. Anne, however, had by this time already agreed to the new order established by the Act of Succession.
Anne ascended the throne after the death of William III on March 8, 1702. Early in her reign she was popular with the people. In her first speech to the English Parliament, delivered on March 11, she contrasted herself with her late Dutch kinsman, saying: “As I know my heart is wholly English, I can sincerely assure you that there is nothing you can expect or desire of me that I will not be prepared to do for the happiness and prosperity of England.”
Soon after her accession, Anne appointed her husband Lord Admiral, giving him nominal control of the navy (unlike William, her elder sister”s husband, he was not made co-consort, remaining merely consort). She gave control of the army to Lord Marlborough, whom she appointed captain-general. Marlborough also received several honors from the queen: he was made a Knight of the Garter and elevated to the rank of duke. The Duchess of Marlborough also held several positions of honor at court.
Anne was crowned on St. George”s Day, April 23, 1702. Because of her gout, she arrived at Westminster Abbey in a palanquin.
On May 4 England entered the War of the Spanish Succession, in which England, Austria, and Holland fought against France and Spain (King Charles II of Spain died childless in 1700, and two rivals began to claim the throne – Charles of the Habsburg dynasty, Archduke of Austria, and Philippe of Bourbon, Duke of Anjou).
The Unification of Great Britain
At this time Ireland was subordinate to England, Wales was part of it, but Scotland remained an independent sovereign state with its own parliament and laws. The “Act of Succession” issued in 1701 by the English Parliament was in force in England and Ireland, but not in Scotland, where the majority wanted to preserve the Stuart dynasty (the male branch) and its rights to the throne.
In her first speech to parliament, Anne proclaimed that it was “extremely necessary” to unite England and Scotland, and in October 1702 an Anglo-Scottish commission met at her former residence at Cockpit to discuss terms. Negotiations ended in early February 1703: no agreement could be reached.
The Scottish Parliament responded to the English Act of Succession by passing its own Security Act, under which, if the queen had no more children, Parliament itself would choose the next monarch of Scotland from among the Protestant descendants of the royal family of Scotland. This heir could not simultaneously become king of England unless England guaranteed full freedom of trade to Scottish merchants. At first Anne did not give royal sanction to this Act, but when the following year the Scottish Parliament threatened to stop supplies, thus reducing Scottish support for the English wars, she agreed to it.
In turn, the English Parliament issued the Aliens Act, threatening to impose economic sanctions and declare Scottish subjects aliens in England unless Scotland repealed the Security Act or began the process of unification with England. Scotland chose the latter; the English Parliament agreed to repeal the Aliens Act, and in early 1706 Anne appointed a new commission to discuss the terms of unification.
The Articles of Union, approved by the commissioners, were presented to Anne on July 23, 1706, and ratified by the English and Scottish parliaments on January 16 and March 6, 1707, respectively. Under the Act of Union, on May 1, 1707, England and Scotland were united into one kingdom, called “Great Britain,” with a single parliament.
Anne, a staunch supporter of the union of England and Scotland despite dissent in both countries, attended a thanksgiving service at St. Paul”s Cathedral. The Scotsman John Clerk, also present, wrote: “No one was more earnestly pious and grateful on this occasion than the queen herself.
During Anne”s reign the two-party system was further developed. In general, the Tories supported the Anglican Church and the “landed interest” of the nobility, while the Whigs supported commerce and Protestant dissenters. As a staunch Anglican, Anne leaned more toward the Tories. The members of her first cabinet belonged mainly to this party: they were such high Tories as Daniel Finch, 2nd Earl of Nottingham and Anne”s uncle Lawrence Hyde, 1st Earl of Rochester. The Cabinet was led by the Lord Treasurer, Earl Godolphin, the Duke of Marlborough (who were moderate Conservatives) and the Speaker of the House of Commons, Robert Harley.
Anne supported the 1702 Provisional Consent Bill, supporting the Tories, but the Whigs disagreed with its passage. Although the Act of Oath gave the right to hold public office only to Anglicans, there was a loophole that allowed dissenters to do so as well. The point is that, by law, nonconformists could hold office if they took the Anglican Communion once a year. The new bill was to deprive them of this possibility. Anne”s husband, whom she ordered to vote for the law, found himself in an uncomfortable position: being himself a Lutheran, he also enjoyed “provisional consent”. In the parliamentary session the Whigs successfully blocked the passage of the bill. After the Great Storm of 1703, the Bill of Provisional Consent was put to a vote again, but Anne would not support it, fearing that a second nomination would lead to political conflict. The Bill was again not passed. A third attempt in November 1704 to pass it as an amendment to the Money Bill also failed.
The Whigs supported the War of the Spanish Succession, increasing their influence after the victory of the Duke of Marlborough at the Battle of Blenheim in 1704. Many of the high Tories who opposed British involvement in the land war with France were removed from office. Godolphin, Marlborough and Harley, now Secretary of State in the Northern Department, formed a “triumvirate” which held power in its hands. They had to rely more and more on the support of the Whigs and, in particular, of the “Whig junta” – the Lords Somers, Halifax, Orford, Wharton and Sunderland – whom Anne disliked. The Duchess of Marlborough constantly asked the Queen to give the Whigs more important posts and reduce the power of the Tories, whom she considered little better than the Jacobites, so Anne”s attitude to her had soured.
In 1706 Godolphin and Marlborough forced Anne to appoint Lord Sunderland, a member of the Whig junta and Marlborough”s son-in-law, as Secretary of State of the South Department. This strengthened the Ministry”s position in Parliament, but worsened the relationship between the Ministry and the Queen; Anne”s displeasure with Godolphin and her former favorite, the Duchess of Marlborough, grew as they supported Sunderland and other Whigs who wanted free government and church offices. The queen sought advice from Harley, who was at odds with Marlborough. She also became close to court dame Abigail Hill (after her marriage to Mash), and the worse Anne”s relationship with Sarah became, the more influence the queen”s new favourite gained. Abigail communicated with both Harley and the Duchess; politically close to Harley, she mediated between him and the Queen.
The rupture in the ministry turned into open conflict on February 8, 1708, when Godolphin and Marlborough declared that the queen must remove Harley or do without their services in the future. Anne hesitated, and Marlborough and Godolphin refused to attend the cabinet meeting. Harley tried to attend to matters without them, but some of those present, including the Duke of Somerset, refused to do anything until they returned. The queen was forced to dismiss Harley.
The following month Anne”s half-brother James Francis Edward Stuart, a Catholic, attempted to land in Scotland. He intended to seize the throne; France supported him in this adventure. Anne delayed the royal sanction of the Scottish Militia Bill because it might have joined the Jacobites. She was the last ruler of Britain to veto the Parliamentary Bill, though there was little dissatisfaction with the action. The fleet never reached land and was driven back by British ships under the command of George Bing. Fear of a Jacobite invasion caused Tory support to plummet, and the Whigs won a majority at the 1708 general election.
The Duchess of Marlborough became angry when Abigail occupied rooms in Kensington Court that Sarah considered her own, though she rarely used them. In July 1708 the Duchess noticed a poem written by some Whig propagandist, perhaps Arthur Mainwaring. The poem alluded to a lesbian relationship between Anne and Abigail. The Duchess wrote to Anne that her reputation was seriously damaged by her “great passion for such a woman… strange and incomprehensible.” Sarah felt that Abigail”s position was too high: “I never considered her education sufficient to be worthy of the company of a great queen. Many people liked the humor of their maids and were very kind to them, but it is very unusual to correspond with them privately and have a close friendship.” Some contemporary authors conclude that Anne was a lesbian, but most reject this view. According to Anne”s biographers, Abigail was only a devoted servant for her, especially since Masham had traditional manners and was entirely faithful to her husband.
Anne did not wear the jewels Sarah had sent to the thanksgiving service for her victory at the Battle of Audenarde. At the door of St. Paul”s Cathedral, they argued, and Sarah told the queen to be quiet. When Sarah sent Anne a letter from her husband unrelated to the quarrel, she enclosed a note, continuing the argument. Anne replied, “After you have ordered me not to answer you on Thanksgiving Day, I should not trouble you with these lines, but return the Duke of Marlborough”s letter to your hands, where it will be safe, and for the same reason I say nothing about it or your enclosure.”
Death of a husband
Anne”s husband died in October 1708, an event that devastated her. It was a turning point in her relationship with the Duchess of Marlborough. Shortly before George”s death, Sarah came to Kensington Palace; when he died, she began to insist that Anne must move from Kensington to St. James”s Palace – something the queen did not want. Anne was annoyed by the actions of the Duchess, who in particular removed George”s portrait from the Queen”s bedroom and refused to return it, claiming that it was natural “to avoid seeing papers or anything that belonged to loved ones when they had just died.”
The Whigs used George”s death to their own advantage. Whig leaders blamed Prince George and his deputy George Churchill (brother of the Duke of Marlborough) for the mismanagement of the Admiralty and the navy. Now the Whigs dominated Parliament, Anne was distraught after her husband”s death, so they took the opportunity by telling her to introduce junta leaders Somers and Wharton into the cabinet. Anne, however, intended to perform the duties of Lord Admiral herself, without appointing anyone to take George”s place. But the junta would not back down and demanded that one of its members, the Earl of Orford, one of George”s chief critics, be appointed First Lord Admiral. On November 29, 1708, Anne gave the post to the moderate Earl of Pembroke. But dissatisfied with the decision, the “Whig junta” pressured Pembroke, Godolphin, and the queen, and Pembroke resigned after less than a year of service. A month later, in November 1709, the queen finally gave Orford control of the admiralty, appointing him first lord.
Sarah never ceased to express her displeasure at Anne”s friendship with Abigail, and in October 1709 Anne wrote to the Duke of Marlborough, asking his wife “to stop teasing and tormenting me, to behave in the decency that she owes both to her friend and to the Queen. On April 6 (17), 1710, Great Thursday, Anne and Sarah met for the last time. According to Sarah, the queen was silent and behaved formally, repeating the same thing: “Anything you want to say, you can put in writing” and “You said you did not want an answer, and I will not give you one.
The War of the Spanish Succession
Discontent with the War of the Spanish Succession grew, and the Whigs became increasingly unpopular. The impeachment of Henry Suscheverell, an Anglican High Church Tory who had preached anti-Whig sermons, exacerbated public discontent. Anne believed that Sacheverell should be punished for doubting the Glorious Revolution, but that the punishment should be mild to prevent an escalation of the conflict. Riots broke out in London in support of Sacheverell, but only Anne”s personal guard was available, and Secretary of State Sunderland was afraid to use them, leaving the queen poorly defended. Anne proclaimed that God would be her protector and ordered Sunderland to move the regiments. In accordance with Anne”s opinion, Suscheverell was condemned, but the sentence – a ban on preaching for three years – was very lenient.
The queen, whose discontent with Marlborough and his ministry was growing, seized the opportunity to retire Sunderland in June 1710. He was followed by Godolphin in August. Members of the “Whig junta” were removed from office, although Marlborough still remained commander in chief of the army. She assembled a new ministry, headed by Harley, which set about seeking peace with France. Harley and his ministry, unlike the Whigs, were willing to compromise: a Bourbon pretender, Philip of Anjou, takes the throne of Spain in exchange for commercial concessions. In the parliamentary elections that soon followed, the Tories won a majority. In January 1711, Anne forced Sarah to resign her positions at court, some of which were taken over by Abigail. In March, the French refugee Marquis de Giscard tried to kill Harley, and Anne cried at the thought that he might die. He recovered, but slowly.
Emperor Joseph I, the eldest brother of Archduke Charles, died in April 1711, and Charles inherited power over Austria, Hungary, and the Holy Roman Empire. It was not in Britain”s interest to give him the Spanish throne as well, but the Whigs opposed the peace treaty proposed to Parliament for ratification because they did not want to increase the influence of the Bourbons. In the House of Commons, the majority of the Tories agreed to the terms, but this was not the case in the House of Lords. The Whigs enlisted the support of the Earl of Nottingham by promising to support his bill of “provisional assent. Immediate action was needed to deprive the Whigs of a majority in the House of Lords. With no alternative, Anne conferred 12 peerages. Abigail”s husband Samuel Masham was given the title of baron. Never in history have so many peerage titles been conferred at the same time. On the same day Marlborough was stripped of his position as commander of the army. The peace treaty was ratified, and British military involvement in the War of the Spanish Succession ended.
By signing the Peace of Utrecht, King Louis XIV acknowledged that the British throne would be inherited by the Hanoverians. Nevertheless, rumors persisted that Anne and her ministers wanted her half-brother to take the throne, although Anne denied it publicly and privately. Rumors were reinforced by the fact that she refused Hanoverians who wanted to visit or move to England and by the intrigues of Harley and Secretary of State Lord Bolingbroke, who themselves negotiated secretly with her half-brother about a possible Stuart restoration.
From January to July 1713, Anna could not walk. On Christmas Day she developed a fever and was unconscious for several hours, causing rumors to spread that she did not have long to live. She recovered, but became seriously ill again in March. By July Anne had lost confidence in Harley; his secretary recorded that the queen told the cabinet “that he neglected all affairs; that he was difficult to understand; that when he explained himself, she could not rely on the truth of what he said; that he never came at the time she had appointed; that he often came drunk; last, to top it off, he behaved badly towards her, indecent and disrespectful.” On July 27, 1714, she dismissed Harley from his position as Lord Treasurer. Despite her deteriorating health, caused, according to her doctors, by the emotional stress of public affairs, she attended two nightly cabinet meetings at which the question was (unsuccessfully) decided: who would take Harley”s place? The third meeting did not take place as Anne”s condition deteriorated. On July 30, 1714, on the anniversary of the death of the Duke of Gloucester, she suffered a stroke that rendered her unable to speak and, at the suggestion of the Privy Council, she presented the symbols of the Treasurer”s office to the Whig courtier Charles Talbot, 1st Duke of Shrewsbury. She died about 7:30 a.m. on August 1, 1714. John Arbetnott, one of her doctors, believed that death was a deliverance for her, for her life had been marred by ill health and various tragedies; he wrote to Jonathan Swift, “I believe that sleep was never so desirable to the weary traveller as death was to her.”
Anne was buried on August 24 next to her husband and children in Henry VII Chapel, Westminster Abbey. Sophia of Hanover, her successor under the Act of Succession of 1701, died two months earlier than Anne, on May 28, and her son George took the throne of Great Britain. Catholic claimants, including Anne”s half-brother James Francis Edward Stuart, were bypassed. George took the throne with few problems: the Jacobite rebellion of 1715 failed. Marlborough was reinstated and the Whigs replaced the Tory ministers.
The Duchess of Marlborough was “excessively disparaging” about Anne in her memoirs, and her judgments influenced many later biographers, who saw the queen as “a weak, indecisive woman, suffering from quarrels in the bedroom and deciding high politics on the basis of personalities.” The Duchess wrote of Anne:
According to contemporary revisionist historians, such assessments of Anne as fat, constantly pregnant, influenced by favorites, and lacking in political acumen may come from prejudice against women. Author David Greene notes: “Under her there was not, as is usually assumed, a ”woman”s kingdom” (but again and again she had to concede.” Professor Edward Cregg concludes that Anne was often able to make the decision she wanted, even though she lived in an era when men played a major role in society and the state apparatus, and she had health problems that prevented her from dealing with public affairs.
During her reign the influence of ministers increased and the influence of the monarch decreased accordingly, but she attended more cabinet meetings than other monarchs of Great Britain (England) and reigned in an era of artistic, literary, economic and political development, a consequence of the relative stability and prosperity of the country during her reign. During this period John Vanbruw designed Blenheim Palace and Castle Howard, created Daniel Defoe, Alexander Pope, and Jonathan Swift. Henry Wise laid out new gardens at Blenheim, Kensington, Windsor, and St. James. The unification of England and Scotland, which Anne fervently supported, created the largest free trade zone in Europe, although not all the hopes of the supporters of the unification of England and Scotland were met – in both countries there were many dissatisfied with this event, one of the most important in Anne”s reign. The political and diplomatic achievements of Anne”s governments and the absence of conflict between the monarch and Parliament during her reign indicate that she chose her ministers and used her prerogatives wisely.
Titles and addresses
The official title of Anne until 1707 was “Anne, by the grace of God, queen of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, defender of the faith and others”. After unification, the title changed to “Anne, by the grace of God, queen of Great Britain, France and Ireland, defender of the faith and others. Like the other monarchs of England from 1340 to 1800, Anne was called the ruler of France, which was only a formality and did not correspond to reality.
Coats of Arms
As reigning queen, before unification Anne had a royal coat of arms used since 1603: the shield is divided into quarters; I and IV quarters are also divided into quarters, on the azure field three golden heraldic lilies (on II quarter a golden rising lion (on III quarter in the azure a golden harp with silver strings (for Ireland). In 1702 Anne also adopted the motto semper eadem (“always the same”), which was used by Elizabeth I. The “Act of Unionization” stated, “the armorial banners of the said Great Britain shall be such as Her Majesty shall appoint.” In 1707 the union was expressed in the coat of arms: the arms of England and Scotland, which previously were in different quarters, were placed in one quarter side by side. I and IV quarters of the new coat of arms were allocated to this juxtaposition; II for France and III for Ireland.
The shield is quadruple: in the first and fourth quarters, the coat of arms is French: three golden lilies; in the second and third nielloed quarters, the English coat of arms: three gold, azure claws and tongues of a leopard; in the second gold with a paired inner scarlet, outside and inside alternately lily-lined border, the coat of arms Scottish: a scarlet, azure claws and tongue of a lion; in the third azure quarter, the Irish coat of arms: gold, silver stringed harp; around shield Noble Garter; shield surmounted by gold, crowned with royal crown, tournament helmet; cape gold, lined with ermine; on crown standing gold, silver clawed and scarlet tongue crowned leopard; On the right side a lion”s leopard crowned with the royal crown of England; on the left side a silver unicorn rising with gold mane, horn and hooves, and in chains of gold; both stand on a cornice of gold, set with roses and thistles, with the motto: “Semper eadem” written in gold on the azure.
The shield is four-parted; in the first and fourth golden quarters, with a pair of inner, blackened, outside and inside alternating lily-lined quarters, the coat of arms of Scotland: a blackened, azure clawed and lion tongue; the second quarter is four-parted: in the first and fourth azure quarters, the coat of arms of France: three golden lilies; in the second and third scarlet quarters, the English coat of arms: three golden, azure claws and tongues of a leopard; in the third azure quarter, the Irish coat of arms: a golden, silver-stringed harp; around the shield the chain of the Most Ancient and Noblest Order of the Thistle, with the sign of St. The shield is surmounted by a golden, crowned with a royal tournament helmet; the crown is of gold, lined with ermine; on the crown sits a straight, scarlet, azure, with claws and tongue, crowned lion, holding in his right paw a sword and in his left – a scepter; Above the lion is the motto “In Defens,” written in scarlet on a silver ribbon; on the right side of the shield is a silver, golden mane, horn and hooves crowned with the royal crown of Scotland, a unicorn in golden chains, bearing the banner of Scotland: On the left, on a gold fringed cloth of azure, a silver cross of St. Andrews; on the left, a lion”s leopard, crowned with claws and tongue, crowned with the royal crown of England, upholding the banner of England: in a gold fringed silver cloth, a scarlet St. George”s cross; both stand on a green, thistle-covered lawn; on it the motto “Nemo me impune lacessit”, inscribed in gold on an azure, gold-lined ribbon.
The shield is four-part: the first and fourth quarters are cut in scarlet and gold: on the right, the English coat of arms: three gold, azure claws and tongues of a leopard; on the left, in the inner scarlet border, inside and outside, alternating lilies, the Scottish coat of arms: a scarlet, azure claws and tongue of a lion; in the second azure quarter, the French coat of arms: three gold lilies; in the third azure quarter, the Irish coat of arms: a harp of gold, silver strings; around the shield a Noble Garter; the shield surmounted by a gold, royally crowned tournament helmet; the cape gold, lined with ermine; on the crown standing a gold, silver clawed and scarlet tongue crowned leopard; On the right side a lion”s leopard crowned with the royal crown of England; on the left side a silver unicorn rising with gold mane, horn and hooves, and in chains of gold; both stand on a cornice of gold, set with rose and thistle, with the motto: “Semper eadem” written in gold on the azure.
The shield is four-part: the first and fourth quarters are divided into gold and niello: on the right, in a paired inner niello, outside and inside alternating lily-lined border, the Scottish coat of arms: niello, azure claws and tongue of a lion; on the left, the English coat of arms: three golden, azure claws and tongues of a leopard; in the second azure quarter the coat of arms of France: three golden lilies; in the third azure quarter the coat of arms of Ireland: a golden, silver-stringed harp; around the shield the chain of the Most Ancient and Noblest Order of the Thistle, with the sign of St. The shield is surmounted by a golden, crowned with a royal tournament helmet; the crown is of gold, lined with ermine; on the crown sits a straight, scarlet, azure, with claws and tongue, crowned lion, holding in his right paw a sword and in his left – a scepter; Above the lion is the motto “In Defens,” written in scarlet on a silver ribbon; on the right side of the shield is a silver, golden mane, horn and hooves crowned with the royal crown of Scotland, a unicorn in golden chains, bearing the banner of Scotland: On the left, on a gold fringed cloth of azure, a silver cross of St. Andrews; on the left, a lion”s leopard, crowned with claws and tongue, crowned with the royal crown of England, upholding the banner of England: in a gold fringed silver cloth, a scarlet St. George”s cross; both stand on a green, thistle-covered lawn; on it the motto “Nemo me impune lacessit”, inscribed in gold on an azure, gold-lined ribbon.
- Анна (королева Великобритании)
- Anne, Queen of Great Britain
- Gregg E. Queen Anne (англ.) — Yale University Press, 2001. — P. 394.
- Все даты в этой статье приведены по Юлианскому календарю, который использовался в Великобритании при жизни Анны; однако, предполагается, что год начинается с 1 января, а не с 25 марта, когда был английский Новый год.
- Curtis, 1972, pp. 12—17Gregg, 2001, p. 4
- Green, 1970, p. 17Gregg, 2001, p. 6Waller, 2006, pp. 293—295
- Gregg, 2001, p. 4.
- Toutes les dates de cet article sont dans le calendrier julien, qui reste en vigueur en Grande-Bretagne jusqu”en 1752.
- Οι ημερομηνίες είναι με το Ιουλιανό ημερολόγιο
- 2,0 2,1 2,2 2,3 Lodge (1832), pp. 7–8
- Field, Ophelia (2003). Sarah Churchill Duchess of Marlborough, The Queen”s Favourite. St. Martin”s Press.
- Innes (1913) p. 440
- Ward, pp. 230–231
- «La primera reina británica, Ana Estuardo (1665-1714)». Consultado el 19 de enero de 2020.
- «Ana de Inglaterra – EcuRed». www.ecured.cu. Consultado el 19 de enero de 2020.