Der Buchstabe lambda, der auf den Rundschilden der spartanischen Hopliten als Symbol für Lacedaemon von Sparta verwendet wurde.

Sparta was a city-state in Ancient Greece built on the banks of the river Evrotas in Laconia in the south-eastern part of the Peloponnese.

Enlightened absolutism

Heraldische Königskrone.

The enlightened despotism is a political doctrine, resulting from the ideas of the philosophers of the XVIIIth century, which combines, in the one who has the power, determined force and progressive will.

Ancient Carthage

Flagge von Karthago.

The Carthaginian civilization or Punic civilization is an ancient civilization located in the Mediterranean basin and at the origin of one of the greatest commercial, cultural and military powers of this region in antiquity.


Von den Alemannen besiedeltes Gebiet und Schauplätze römisch-alemannischer Kämpfe, drittes bis sechstes Jahrhundert.

The Alamanni or Alemanni were an ancient and early medieval population group assigned to the West Germanic cultural area.

Baroque music

Gemälde von Evaristo Baschenis mit Barockinstrumenten, darunter eine Cister, ein fünf- oder sechssaitiges Cello mit Bünden, eine Violine und zwei Lauten.

The term Baroque was introduced in historiography to classify the stylistic trends that marked architecture painting and sculpture, and by extension poetry and literature between the 17th century and the first half of the 18th.

Roman Empire

Flagge des Römischen Reiches.

The Roman Empire was the post-republican period of ancient Roman civilization, characterized by an autocratic form of government led by an emperor and extensive territorial possessions around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa, and Asia.


Karte mit der ungefähren Lage des vorrömischen belgischen Galliens kurz vor der römischen Eroberung, nach einer Interpretation von Caesar.

The Belgians are a group of ancient populations that occupied northern Gaul, between the English Channel and the left bank of the Rhine, north of the Seine, at least since the third century BC.

House of Savoy

Großes Wappen des Königs von Italien.

The House of Savoy is a dynasty that ruled over the territories of Savoy and Piedmont since the High Middle Ages and provided the kings of Italy from 1861 to 1946.

Renaissance humanism

Frontispiz mit Darstellung von Dante, Petrarca, Boccaccio mit dem Wappen der Familie Medici-Toledo obenauf.

Renaissance humanism is the modern name for a powerful intellectual current in the Renaissance period, first inspired by Francesco Petrarch.

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