Dimitris Stamatios | July 13, 2023


Sappho (Ancient Greek Σαπφώ

Very famous in Antiquity, his poetic work survives only in fragments (Oxyrhynchus papyrus no. 7, in particular).

She is known for expressing her attraction to young girls in her writings, hence the term “saphisme” for female homosexuality, while the term “lesbian” is derived from Lesbos, the island where she lived.

Sappho (i.e. in Ionian-Attic, then in the koinè Σαπφώ) is the form by which the Greeks of Athens, then those of the Hellenistic period, named the poetess. This phonetic form is therefore an adaptation to their dialect of the form used in Aeolian, the dialect spoken on Lesbos, i.e. Psappho, or Psappha (Ψαπφώ), the form found in her poems. It’s the latter spelling that is still used on coins used to mint coins, found in Antonine times in Eresós, a city that claimed with Mytilene the privilege of being Sappho’s birthplace. Sappho is known as “the Lesbian”, i.e., initially by antonomasia, “the famous person from Lesbos”.

From Sappho’s name were derived the noun “saphisme” and the corresponding adjective “saphique”, an evolution of the Latin word sapphicus, meaning “relating to Sappho”.

There is little reliable information on Sappho. As early as the 5th century, Attic comedy took hold of her character, and biographical elements concerning her are late and often probably influenced by the comic tradition. As with most ancient poets, her work has only come down to us in very fragmentary form.

According to some sources, most of Sappho’s works were burnt in 1073 in Rome and Constantinople on the orders of the religious authorities, only to be rediscovered much later in fragments around 1897. However, the scientific community is sceptical about the veracity of these sources, which may merely be perpetuating a legend.

All we have of her are fragments and scattered quotations from ancient authors spanning many centuries. It is therefore not easy to extract anything truly objective from these sparse indications, as the work and life of the poetess can only be reconstructed through this highly distorting prism. Moreover, we mustn’t lose sight of the fact that we’re talking about both a person and a character, and it’s not always easy to distinguish one from the other.

The character of Sappho and the question of her sexuality have been the subject of different interpretations over the centuries, often linked to social and cultural developments.

As early as the classical era, she became a figure of ridicule in classical and later new Attic comedy (Menander), which contributed to making her a character of depraved morals. Seneca tells us of a work entitled “Was Sappho a Public Woman”, written by a certain Didymus under Augustus.

At the same time, some commentators from Antiquity onwards tried to protect the poet’s reputation, going so far as to attribute the aspects deemed scandalous to a hypothetical second Sappho, sometimes known as “Sappho of Erese”, a lyre-player or courtesan.

Bachofen, the theorist of matriarchy, devotes a chapter to Sappho in his Das Mutterrecht (Maternal Law), published in 1861. He makes the poetess a disciple of the Orphic religion, and attributes to her, in a process of philosophical idealization, an educational function similar to that of Socrates.

From the 19th century onwards, some authors made her the headmistress of a kind of boarding school for girls from good families, denying the character any genuinely homosexual dimension.

Six ancient authors provide dates or indications for establishing a chronology, from Herodotus in the 5th century BC to Souda in the 11th century. Maximus of Tyre, Athenaeus and the Souda use the same source, now lost, a philosopher contemporary with Aristotle named Chameleon. According to the Souda, Sappho lived (or was born, the Greek term being interpreted in different ways) during the 42nd Olympiad (612-608 B.C.), when Alcalaeus, Sesichorus and Pittakos also lived, while a note by St. Jerome tells us that Sappho and Alcalaeus were illustrious in 600-599. The fragment of the Paros Chronicle preserved at Oxford contains a precise mention of Sappho’s exile from Mytilene to Sicily. This chronicle allows us to place the exile in 596 B.C. However, the inaccuracies known elsewhere in the Paros Chronicle lead us to date it somewhere between 605 and 591. Only Herodotus, who mentions Sappho only indirectly (Histories, II, 135), has her living forty to fifty years later. Despite Herodotus, a number of sources agree that Sappho lived between 620 and 591, and we can assume that she was born around 630 BC. No author gives any indication of the date of her death.

Her name, Sappho, is known in antiquity to have been borne by foreigners (i.e., non-Greeks), and her father’s name, Scamandrônymos, is based on that of the Scamander, a river in the Troad; her family may therefore have had origins in Asia Minor. As for her birthplace, sources differ: while the town of Eresós is cited in the Souda, the poet could also have been from Mytilene. As for her looks, papyrus 1800 (Oxyrhynchus papyrus), dating from the 3rd or 2nd century BC, describes her as “ugly, black and very small”, and for Maximus of Tyre, she is also “small and black”. Sappho herself speaks of her black hair, which beginning to turn white may suggest that she didn’t consider herself beautiful. This point is confirmed by Ovid’s XV Eroyda, a text that seems on the whole to follow closely on the heels of Sappho’s own works.

In addition to the name of her father, who, according to Ovid, died when Sappho was six, we also know her mother’s name, Cleïs. Cleïs is also the name of her daughter, mentioned in her poems.

“I own a beautiful child whose form is like golden flowers, Kléis the beloved, whom I to all Lydia and to the lovable…”

– Trad. Renée Vivien, 1903.

Ancient authors (and after them modern ones) have debated whether Sappho was married or not. If she was, it’s likely that her husband, called Kerkolas according to some, who is nowhere mentioned in the poems, soon disappeared from her life. She also had three brothers, Érigyios, Larichos and Charaxos. Larichos, according to Athenaeus, served as cupbearer at the prytaneum of Mytilene, a position reserved for a member of the aristocracy, and was Sappho’s favorite, according to papyrus 1800. Charaxos traded as far afield as Egypt, where, in Naucratis, he fell in love with a courtesan, Doricha. He ruined himself for her, as Herodotus recounts, mixing history with legend. In three of her poems, Sappho addresses violent reproaches to this brother, echoes of which are again found in Ovid.

Although Sappho is best known for her love poetry, fragments discovered during the 20th century have revealed some verses of a more political nature. Her family belonged to the ancient aristocracy of the island of Lesbos, which derived its wealth from its land holdings. Several of Sappho’s poems contain invectives against families belonging to this aristocracy, indicating conflicts within it: invectives against the Penthilides, the ancient royal family of Mytilene, still all-powerful in the 7th century, the Cleanaxes, the Archeanaxes, the Polyanaxes. But in the Greek world at that time, democratic movements were also bringing tyrants to power, in opposition to the old aristocracies. This was also the case in Mytilene. A new class of merchants and shipowners formed the core of the opposition to the old aristocracy. There was no clear dividing line between the two, as illustrated by the example of Charaxos, Sappho’s brother and a merchant himself. During the troubles of this period, Pittakos, allied with the Penthilides family, whose daughter he had married, was brought to power by the conservative clan. But far from being a puppet of the aristocracy, he pursued a policy of conciliation that displeased the most conservative part of the aristocracy. Pittakos condemned the troublemakers to exile. Tradition has it that it was in this context that

We don’t know exactly where Sappho spent her exile in Sicily, but the presence of a statue of the poetess, by the sculptor Silanion, in Syracuse, is perhaps a reminder of her stay there. The existence of this statue is known thanks to Cicero, who mentions it among the works of art stolen by Verres.

Pardoned by Pittacos, she returned to Mytilene with her brothers around 595.

Sappho’s circle

For the Hellenist Claude Calame, Sappho’s group, called by her moisopolon oikia, or the “house consecrated to the muses”, is a group of young girls with an institutional character, active in particular during wedding ceremonies. These girls are referred to by the poetess as hetairai, or “companions”, a term Athenaeus used in Sappho’s time for the closest of friends. The activities of this group are similar to those of a women’s opera chorus: dancing and singing.

An anonymous epigram from the Palatine Anthology gives an idea:

“Go to the radiant temple of the beautiful Hera, Lesbiennes, forming light dances. There, organize a magnificent choir in honor of the goddess: Sapho will lead it with her golden lyre. To her chords you’ll dance with joy! Yes, you’ll think you’re hearing the sweet hymn of Calliope herself.”

– Anthologie palatine, IX, 189 (translated by Fr. Jacobs, 1863).

This epigram, along with other sources, including a fragment from Sappho herself (fragment 17), links the poet to the beauty contests reserved for women (gunaikes) and to the cult of the goddess Hera, which, along with that of Zeus and Dionysus, was practiced in a Panlesbian sanctuary north of the city of Pyrrha.

Other groups of young girls, led by poetesses, are known, particularly in the Eastern Greek world. This may be the case, for example, of the poetess Télésille in the early 5th century BC. On Lesbos itself, two of Sappho’s rivals, Andromeda and Gorgona, headed their own groups. Sappho’s role within her circle was educational, with young girls from the Lesbos aristocracy or from other regions such as Ionia. Some are named by Souda: Anactoria from Milet, Gongyla from Colophon, Eunica from Salamine. The education received by these young girls, musical in nature and placed under the sign of Aphrodite, and dispensed in an initiatory and ritualized form, aimed to help them acquire the qualities required for marriage. The link between Sappho’s circle and marriage is confirmed by the many fragments of epithalam that have been preserved by the poetess, as well as by her poem on the marriage of Hector and Andromache. According to Claude Calame, the homoerotic relations between Sappho and some of the girls in her group are probably a ritual form of sexual initiation. The suffering expressed in some of Sappho’s poems stems from the contradiction between the poet’s genuinely homosexual personality and the transitory nature of relationships destined to end when the girls leave the group.

An older theory, dating back to Wilamowitz, sees the Sappho group as a thiase. This thesis is defended, from a completely different perspective, by historian Marie-Jo Bonnet. Although Sappho prepares young girls for marriage, she does not want them to suffer the usual fate of Greek women, whose status at the time is perfectly summed up in this formulation: “We have courtesans for pleasure, concubines to provide us with daily care, wives to give us legitimate children and be the faithful guardians of our home”. What’s more, even married women were not citizens and had no rights in the city; little girls did not go to school and were married off without their consent from the age of fifteen.

Marie-Jo Bonnet, extending this approach, hypothesizes that Sappho’s teaching at the thiase created an upheaval in the foundations of Greek society. In this all-girls institution, Eros is cultivated and developed through the pursuit of beauty of body and mind. Pupils learn theater (Aphrodite’s mysteries), dance, singing and poetry, and exchange ideas from all over the Greek empire, all of which lead them to think differently from the usual codes. In a word, they acquire knowledge, which gives them a certain independence from the laws and customs of the city. Philia was born between them, a feeling of love and friendship hitherto reserved for men. There are no longer dominant and dominated as in heterosexual couples, or eraste and erome as in pederasty, no elders who initiate the younger to passivity, but two similar beings who love each other outside established codes and obey only nature and the gods, in this case Aphrodite. For the girls, Sappho’s teaching is a true initiation to freedom. According to Marie-Jo Bonnet, all this challenged a regime based on patriarchy and male omnipotence, and this activity was promptly suppressed in the following century.

For academic Holt N. Parker, the thiasos theory is a modern invention, as the word thiasos appears neither in Sappho’s work nor in ancient sources on the poetess. This theory has one function: to exclude Sappho from the realm of normal poetic activity, making her the preserve of male poets.

All these theories have been called into question by recent research on sexuality by Michel Foucault and other antiquarians such as David Halperin and John Winckler. The most recent hypothesis, defended in particular by Stefano Caciagli and Sandra Boehringer, is that Sappho belonged to a hetairie, a group of female companions who were part of the city’s elite. She developed socio-political ties and alliances with the other female members of this hetairie, in a particular context, that of pre-classical, non-democratic Greek cities.

Lesbian Sappho

Sappho’s homosexuality has been widely debated in intellectual and academic circles. It is a subject of research, but also of numerous fantasies. Some invent a passion for a certain Phaon, while others attribute a love affair with her contemporary Alcée. Some researchers have turned her into a prostitute, a schoolmistress or a lesbian, with varying degrees of emphasis on her debauchery. These are moral considerations based on a modern, Western conception that does not correspond to Greek models.

According to Claude Mossé, homosexuality, or rather pederasty, was a normal practice in the aristocratic milieu of archaic Greece, and did not exclude heterosexual relations, particularly within the framework of marriage. Indeed, unlike today, there was no question of defining one’s identity in terms of homosexuality or heterosexuality.

It’s hardly surprising, then, that Sappho, who belonged to this milieu, was openly homosexual, nor that she was married. Her love for young girls is clearly expressed in her poems, and the desire that manifests itself, along with the evocation of Eros and Aphrodite, leaves little doubt as to the physical nature of these relationships. While there was nothing shocking about this in the Mytilene of the time, the fact that it was a woman expressing herself was exceptional. This aristocratic freedom was soon no longer understood, and the comic poets of Athens were the first to mock Sappho. They also insisted on her heterosexuality, inventing for her a passion for a certain Phaon, or a love affair with her contemporary Alcée. In fact, as early as the Hellenistic period, a number of sources began to question the reality of Sappho’s homosexuality. Papyrus 1800, a scholiast by Horace, Ovid and the Souda, on the contrary, put forward her heterosexuality, alleging her love for Phaon, her marriage and the fact that she had a daughter.

For Eva Cantarella, on the other hand, homosexual relations in female groups, known as thiases, are not of a pederastic nature. Unlike male groups, where pederasty is part of the group’s initiatory function, designed to prepare adolescents for adult life, and therefore for their role as citizens, in thiases, love relationships are autonomous. They have nothing to do with the sexuality of adult women, considered normal at the time, i.e. heterosexual, and therefore have no educational value. This is why love affairs could take place between girls of the same age, and take the form of ritual marriages, as the poet Alcman attests.

Michel Foucault’s research on sexuality has shown that there is no such thing as a regime of sexuality in Greece. In ancient Greece, people were not defined by their sexual orientation. There is no such thing as homosexual or heterosexual, insofar as these categories are not used by the Greeks to name their practices. So it’s hardly surprising that Sappho’s poems express an eros between women. What’s more, this eros is not subject to moral judgment or discrimination. Her verses did indeed circulate later in men’s banquets and, later, in Hellenistic collections.

It should not be forgotten that the poets of this period were also musicians, accompanying themselves with the lyre – or more precisely, in the case of Alcée and Sappho, with the barbitos, a lower, more elongated type – and with harps of various kinds, Sappho’s favorites being the magadis and the pectis, which she sometimes mentions in her verses: according to Théodore Reinach, these instruments were equipped with strings that doubled the fundamental notes in the upper octave, giving them a particular resonance.

According to Plutarch’s treatise On Music, Sappho invented the Mixolydian mode, one of the three main modes of ancient Greek music. More likely, Sappho had to adapt the Lydian mode, which was strictly instrumental, to her own poetry. She also played a type of lyre called pectis, also of Lydian origin, and is said to be the inventor of the plectrum.

Menander, in a passage from his play Leukadia preserved by Strabo, is the earliest known source to report the legend that Sappho threw herself into the sea from the island of Lefkada, in pursuit of a certain Phaon, out of love for him. Phaon is a mythical figure close to that of Adonis and Phaeton. According to one myth, Phaon is an old man transformed into a young man by Aphrodite, with whom the goddess falls in love. Other myths report that Aphrodite was the first to leap from the rock of Lefkada, out of love for Adonis, or that she was in love with Phaeton. Gregory Nagy’s study of the relationship between these different myths suggests that there was a myth of a cosmic nature, linked to death and rebirth, and specific to the island of Lesbos, featuring Aphrodite in love with Phaon, and leaping into the sea from the rock of Lefkada. Sappho is said to have written a poem about this myth, in which she identified herself with the goddess. This poem, now lost, is said to be the source of the version in Menander’s fragment.

The scene of the Leap of Leucade adorned the chapel of the Neo-Pythagoreans in Rome, during the reign of Claudius. In modern times, it was depicted by several painters, including Pierre-Narcisse Guérin, Théodore Chassériau, Gustave Moreau and Henri Manguin (1874-1949). She was also the inspiration for Charles Gounod’s opera Sapho.

Sappho was very famous and appreciated in antiquity: over a hundred ancient authors quoted her or wrote about her. In an epigram attributed (probably by mistake) to Plato, the author calls her “the tenth Muse”. Only one poem has survived in its entirety, the Hymn to Aphrodite, while the others are incomplete (fragments on papyrus, quotations sometimes limited to a single line or even a single word). Her favorite theme seems to be passionate love. She also wrote epithalames. Her poetry can therefore be described as lyrical. Note Solon’s remark, after hearing one of her poems read, that “my desire is to learn it and then die”. It’s also worth remembering that, in common parlance in the ancient world, when we said “the poet” we meant Homer, and when we spoke of “the poetess” we meant Sappho.

She wrote in a Greek dialect known as Aeolian or even lesbian (characterized by psilosis, a disruption of accentuation and the maintenance of digamma). We owe her the creation of a particular metrical form, the “sapphic stanza”.

Three epigrams from the Palatine Anthology and elegiac poems (according to the Oxyrhynchus 1800 papyrus), of which nothing has survived, are attributed to him, probably erroneously because they appear to be far too recent.

Its classification

Sappho is said to have composed nine books of lyric poetry (according to the Souda). It was Alexandrian philologists who classified her works in this way, apparently according to metre, but also sometimes according to subject. At least, this is what we can observe in Théodore Reinach’s work, published under the patronage of the Association Guillaume Budé.

“The equal of the gods

The poem φάινεταί μοι (“It seems to me”, the first two words of the poem, known in French among other titles as Ode à l’aimée or “L’égal des dieux”) has been preserved for us by the pseudo-Longin, who, in his Traité du sublime, gives it as an example of the sublime achieved by an effect of accumulation. The poem was imitated in Latin by Catullus. An edition of the pseudo-Longin treatise gave the Greek text for the first time since antiquity in Basel in 1554, followed by editions in Venice in 1555 and France in 1556. Louise Labé drew inspiration from Sappho’s poem in 1555 (the eighth of her Sonnets), although it is not clear whether she knew the Greek text. In all, more than a hundred translations, imitations and adaptations have been made of it in French since the Renaissance: Belleau, Ronsard, Amyot, Malherbe… Boileau gives a version in his translation of the pseudo-Longin treatise in 1674, and Racine draws inspiration from the poem in Phèdre (act I, scene 3) in 1677. And André Chénier, Jean Richepin and Marguerite Yourcenar.

It is classified by Théodore Reinach in Book I of the poetess’ works, which is made up of poems in Sapphic stanzas (three 11-syllable lines, one 5-syllable line).

Mary R. Lefkowitz has compared a reading of Emily Dickinson’s poem “I Had Been Hungry, All the Years” with the analysis made of the poem “Equal to the Gods” by several scholars (Wilamowitz, Denys Page and Devereux), in order to illustrate the bias introduced into the analyses by the fact that Sappho is a woman. What these studies all have in common is a biographical reading of the poem, and more specifically, the view that it is an expression of the author’s personal emotions. According to Lefkowitz, they are all based on the assumption that a woman artist is an emotionally unfulfilled woman, in other words, that she experiences the lack of a man and tends to be either an old maid or a lesbian. Wilamowitz, for example, in Sappho und Simonides, considers the man in the first stanza to be the husband of the young girl mentioned in the poem, a husband for whom Sappho, a “schoolmistress”, feels jealous; he thus interprets the poem in terms of a sexuality considered normal. Mary Lefkowitz, on the other hand, insists on the poem’s general character and suggests that it should be read as an expression of the weakness that seizes a woman in love with beauty at the sight of the object of her love. The presence of expressions used in epic literature would be the mark of a feminine point of view of situations usually considered from the male point of view, without necessarily referring to a situation actually experienced by the author.

Yves Battistini published a translation of Sappho’s work by Gallimard in 2004, in which “L’égal des dieux” was renamed “Le désir”.

Ode to Aphrodite

The Ode to Aphrodite is the only poem by Sappho to have been found complete. It has been translated many times, including by Renée Vivien:

“You whose throne is of rainbow, immortal Aphrodita, daughter of Zeus, weaver of wiles, I beg you not to tame my soul, O Venerable One, with anguish and distress. But come, if ever, and more than once, hearing my voice, you listened to it, and, leaving your father’s house, you came, having harnessed your golden chariot. And beautiful, swift sparrows led the way. Around the dark earth they flapped their wings, descending from the sky through the ether. They arrived at once, and you, O Blessed One, having smiled with your immortal face, asked me what had happened to me, and what favor I implored, and what I most desired in my foolish soul. “What Persuasion do you want to attract to your love? Who treats you unjustly, Psappha? For she who flees from you promptly will pursue you, she who refuses your gifts will offer you gifts, she who does not love you will love you promptly and even in spite of herself.” Come to me even now, and deliver me from cruel cares, and whatever my heart desires to accomplish, accomplish it, and be Thyself my ally.”

– Translation by Renée Vivien, 1903.

Papyrological discoveries in the early 21st century

In 2004, the first transcriptions of two Sappho poems discovered on fragments (Cologne papyri 21351 and 21376) of a Hellenistic anthology were published. One was previously unknown and is in a very incomplete state. The second, sometimes called “Tithon’s poem”, is better preserved and in part already known (fragment 58).

At the end of January 2014, British papyrologist Dirk Obbink made public his discovery of important fragments of two new poems by Sappho, which he provisionally dubbed the “poem of the brothers” and the “poem of Kypris”, on a fragment of a 3rd-century AD papyrus from Oxyrhynchos, which is the best-preserved papyrus ever discovered bearing poems by Sappho. The “poem of the brothers” shows two characters discussing with concern a sea voyage undertaken by a man named Charaxos, whom tradition makes one of Sappho’s brothers, and also mentions Larichos, another of the poetess’s brothers, in its last stanza. The “Kypris poem”, of which only a few verses are well preserved, is addressed to Aphrodite.

Among the ancient vases depicting female activities, a series is devoted to female musicians, including red-figure vases, mostly dating from the second half of the 5th century BC. Four Athenian vases bear the name Sappho. The concordance between these representations and the actual course of her performances has not been attested. Nor is it known whether the images are faithful to the poet’s physique.

A kalpis by the Sappho painter from around 510 B.C., painted using the Six technique and preserved in Warsaw’s National Museum, is the oldest depiction of Sappho, who is shown playing the barbitos. Her name, which is also the oldest inscription, is spelled Phsapho. This painting is one of the very first in Greek art to depict a character who is not a deity, a hero or a legendary artist, but a real person.

A kalathos from Agrigento, known as the Munich Vase since it is kept in Munich at the Staatliche Antikensammlungen, is attributed to the Painter of Brygos and dates from around 480. Sappho and Alcée are depicted carrying the barbitos and the plectrum. The figures are of high stature, previously reserved for heroes in vase painting. The three-quarter view of Sappho, also unusual, indicates that the poetess is looking back at Alcée.

On the Vari vase, dated 440-430 and preserved in the National Archaeological Museum in Athens, Sappho is shown seated, not as a musician, but reading her own poems to a group of young girls. The scroll in her hand bears the title of the volume, Paroles ailées, and the beginning: “I write my verses with air…”.


Sappho’s life is described in greater or lesser detail by many ancient authors and texts, including :

External links


  1. Sappho
  2. Sappho
  3. Le Ψ (psi) initial n’est en réalité pas un Ψ, mais une lettre d’un ancien système d’écriture égéen[Lequel ?], correspondant au Σ (sigma), et doit se prononcer de la même façon (Édith Mora, Sappho, p. 26).
  4. Certains manuscrits de la Souda comportent ainsi deux entrées différentes.
  5. dont Wilamowitz ou Reinach, ou encore Bonnard, Flacelière et Marrou (voir Édith Mora, Sappho, p. 68).
  6. Renée Vivien interprète le mot « enfant » comme se référant à une esclave.
  7. Единственный современный Сапфо источник, который описывает её жизнь, — это её собственные стихи.
  8. По Геродоту и «Паросской хронике», по Суде — уроженка Эресса [1] Архивная копия от 27 марта 2015 на Wayback Machine
  9. По мнению А. Боннара: «Нигде искусство Сафо не проявилось более обнажённо, чем в этой оде» (Боннар А. Греческая цивилизация. М., 1992. Т. 1. С. 122).
  10. ^ 17.1.33, Geographica[*]​
  11. ^ Sappho, British Museum person-institution thesaurus[*][[British Museum person-institution thesaurus (176461 persons & institutions, not yet coreferenced)|​]]  |access-date= necesită |url= (ajutor)
  12. ^ IeSBE / Sapfo[*][[IeSBE / Sapfo (articol enciclopedic)|​]]  Verificați valoarea |titlelink= (ajutor)
  13. ^ Greek Lyric Poetry: A Commentary on Selected Larger Pieces (în engleză)
  14. ^ a b САПФО́, Marea Enciclopedie Rusă, accesat în 25 ianuarie 2021
  15. DEMARCHI, 2010, p.136
  16. a b c Jhon Lempriere, D.D (1833). A Classical Dictionary; containing, a copious account of the principal proper names mentioned in ancient authors with the value of coins, wheights, and measures, used among the greeks and romans; and a chronological table. Nova York: [s.n.]  |acessodata= requer |url= (ajuda)
  17. Freeman 2016, p. 208
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