Treaty of Paris (1814)

Östliche Grenze Frankreichs, wie in Artikel III des Ersten Friedens von Paris festgelegt.

The Treaty of Paris of 1814 is one of the most important peace treaties in European history, also called the “first peace of Paris” after the total defeat of Napoleon I.

Congress of Vienna

Die auf dem Wiener Kongress beschlossenen nationalen Grenzen innerhalb Europas.

The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, which officially took place in Vienna from November 1814 to 1815.

Duchy of Prussia

Flagge von Preußen.

The Duchy of Prussia, or Ducal Prussia, is a hereditary territorial principality vassal of the King of Poland, founded in 1525 during the secularization of the Teutonic State by its Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach, the first prince in Europe to officially adopt Lutheranism as the religion of his state.

Anna Jagiellon

Kober Anna Jagiellon im Krönungsgewand.

Anna Jagiellonka – daughter of Sigismund I the Old and Bona Sforza, queen of Poland since 1575, in 1576 married Stefan Batory, who became iure uxoris king of Poland and exercised actual power; the last Polish monarch of the Jagiellonian dynasty, childless, after the death of her husband led to the election of Sigismund III Vasa, her nephew, as king of Poland.

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

Flagge des Polnisch-Litauischen Commonwealth.

The Polish-Lithuanian Confederation, formally known as the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and, after 1791, the Confederation of Poland, was a federal state composed of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch in royal union, acting as both ruler of Poland and grand duke of Lithuania.

Crimean Khanate

Flagge des Krim-Khanats.

Crimean Khanate, self-name – Ulug Horde ve Desht-i Kipchak, in European geography and historiography of modern times – Minor Tatars) – the state in the Crimea, Northern Black Sea coast and adjacent territories, appeared in the Crimean ulus as a result of the collapse of the Golden Horde and existed from 1441 to 1783 years.

Scythians

Karte der skythischen Kultur.

Scythians was the name given in antiquity to the members of a group of peoples of Iranian origin, characterized by a culture based on nomadic pastoralism and the breeding of riding horses.

Achaemenid Empire

Flagge von Persien.

The Achaemenids were a dynasty of kings who founded and ruled the first of the Persian empires to rule over much of the Middle East during the first millennium BC.

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