Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor

Anton von Maron 006.

Joseph Benedict Augustus John Anthony Michael Adam of Habsburg-Lorraine was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765, first associated with the throne over the Habsburg family dominions with his mother Maria Theresa until her death in 1780, and then also Archduke of Austria and sole ruler until his death in 1790.

American Revolution

John Trumbulls Gemälde Declaration of Independence (Unabhängigkeitserklärung) zeigt das fünfköpfige Komitee, das die Unabhängigkeitserklärung verfasst hat und dem Kongress seine Arbeit vorstellt.

The American Revolution encompasses a series of political, economic, military, organizational and legislative events in the second half of the 18th century, specifically between 1763 and 1791, which culminated in the emergence of an independent and sovereign state in North America, the United States of America.

Enlightened absolutism

Heraldische Königskrone.

The enlightened despotism is a political doctrine, resulting from the ideas of the philosophers of the XVIIIth century, which combines, in the one who has the power, determined force and progressive will.

Hugo Grotius

Porträt des niederländischen Juristen und Staatsmanns Hugo de Groot, auch bekannt als Hugo Grotius.

Hugo de Groot or Huig de Groot, known as Grotius, born on April 10, 1583 in Delft and died on August 28, 1645 in Rostock, was a Dutch humanist, diplomat, lawyer, theologian and jurist of the beginnings of the republic of the United Provinces, resulting from the insurrection of the Netherlands against Philip II.

Cesare Beccaria

Cesare Beccaria, Vater der klassischen Straftheorie.

Cesare Beccaria, a Milanese aristocrat, is considered the main representative of penal enlightenment and the Classical School of Criminal Law.


Charles Montesquieu.

Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu, known as Montesquieu, was a French writer, philosopher and state theorist of the Enlightenment.