Stroganovs (Stroganovs) – the family of Russian industrialists and landowners, from which came the major landowners and statesmen of the XVI-XX centuries. Since XVIII century – barons and counts of the Russian Empire. The line was discontinued in 1923 (Baroness Helen de Ludingauzen (Elena Andreyevna) (born 1942) living in Paris is the closest descendant of the last Counts Stroganoff in the female line). The Stroganoffs were the largest landowners in the Urals from the 16th century until 1917. In 1817, the Stroganovs” possessions in Perm were transformed into a majorat, the area of which remained unchanged until 1917 – about 1.5 million dessiatinas of land. The Stroganovs” majorat, which included the estate of Maryino in Novgorod County, immediately passed to the Golitsyn family.
Their names are given to a movement in Russian iconography of the late 16th – early 17th centuries (the Stroganov School of Iconography), the 17th century school of church face embroidery (Stroganov Face Embroidery) and the Moscow Baroque movement.
In the 18th century, historians believed, according to the story of Dutch scholar Nicholas Witsen, who in turn took it from the Dutch merchant and geographer Isaac Massa, that the ancestor of the Stroganoffs was allegedly a Tatar who had adopted the Christian name Spiridon. This Spiridon married a relative of Moscow Prince Dmitry Donskoy, but was later captured by the Tatars and for his unwillingness to return to the old faith was martyred – Khan ordered to “tie him to a pillar, and his body was cut up on it, and then, all into pieces, to scatter,” which “was immediately done. After Spiridon died in 1395 he had a son named Kuzma (Kozma), who received the name of Stroganov (Strogonov) in memory of the circumstances of his father”s death. This version was already rejected by N. M. Karamzin, who, while not denying the origin of the Stroganovs from the Golden Horde, considered the fact of planing a fable. And later it was refuted completely.
In the middle of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, historians adhered to the version that the Stroganov family came from the rich citizens of Veliky Novogorod. This hypothesis was put forward by N.G. Ustryalov, who worked in the Stroganoff archives to compile the Stroganoff family tree by order of Countess S.V. Stroganova.
The fallacy of the Novgorod version was convincingly proved by historian A. A. Vvedensky. He showed that the Stroganovs were descended from the Pomors of the Russian North. This version is adhered to in Soviet historiography.
F. A. Volegov, the manager of the Stroganov estate in Perm, specified that the Stroganovs descended from Spiridon, whose grandson Luka Kuzmich gave funds to ransom Prince Vasily the Dark of Moscow from Tatar captivity. Around 1488 Fyodor Lukich Stroganov (d. March 17, 1497), Spiridon”s great grandson, settled in Soli-Vychegodskaya. He left four sons – Stepan, Osip, Vladimir, and Anika. The first three sons of Fedor died childless and were not famous for anything in particular, while the youngest, Anika, became the founder of the Stroganoff family wealth.
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In Soli-Vychegodskaya his son Anikey (Anika, Anikey, Ioannikey) Stroganov started a salt mine. Most sources indicate that this happened in 1515 (A. A. Vvedensky specifies (Merchant House XVI-XVII centuries – L, 1926. – Pp. 26, 88), that on February 18, 1526 he “bought from Ya.F.Bizimov a third of cooking tank without tsiren and a third of cooking area for two grivnas”, and on July 15, 1540 – “from V.and D.Varonitskih cooking tank with tsiren and area for seventeen rubles”, and the charter of tsar Ivan IV “for empty place for cooking tank with tax privileges for six years” – in 1550.
On April 9, 1517 the sons of Fedor Stroganoff – Osip, Stepan and Vladimir received from Prince Vasily Ivanovich a letter of grant for the “Salt of Kachal”.
Anika had three sons: Yakov (his branch in the male line faded after the death of his grandson Daniil), Grigory (his only son Nikita died single) and Semyon, from whom the rest of the Stroganovs descended.
On April 4, 1558 Tsar Ivan Vasilievich the Terrible granted his second son Gregory huge estates in the lands of the Kama River in the Ural Kama region (3.5 million dessiatinas of “desert lands” in the Northwestern Urals on both sides of the Kama from the mouth of the Lysva to the Chusovaya River).
On August 16, 1566 the Stroganoff lands were taken into oprichnina, i.e. a special appanage of Ivan the Terrible – in 1565-1572. – with a special territory, army and state apparatus, the revenues from which went to the state treasury.
March 25, 1568 received a letter of grant for the land on the Chusovaya River older son of Anikey, Jacob: under the year 1568 in Kazan mentioned yard Onikey Stroganov.
The Stroganovs, developing in their possessions agriculture, salt, fish, hunting and mining, built cities, fortresses, with the help of their military units suppressed rebellions of local nationalities and joined Russia with new territories in the Urals, Urals and Siberia.
The Stroganovs appealed to the tsar to allot them lands along the Tobol River “from the mouths to the tops” in order to advance their influence in Siberia. In 1574 a royal charter was issued granting this request.
In 1572 the Tatar Khan Kuchum began to attack the Stroganovs” fiefdoms in Perm. Other nationalities joined the rebels. Several villages were burned, “trading people” were robbed and killed. Tsarist letter of August 6, 1572 contained a plan to subdue the rebellious Cheremisses, and the Stroganoffs themselves were to carry it out. Stroganovs pacified the revolt and notified the tsar that the rebels were led by K Khan Kuchum, and that Khan imposed a ban on tribute to Moscow by Nogai, Votyak, ostyak and Cheremiss. Constant raids by the local population interfered with the development of the Perm region, and the king in 1574 allowed the Stroganoffs to have their own army. In 1578 Ivan the Terrible”s troops made a raid against the Volga Cossacks who had robbed the tsar”s treasury for the construction of the Astrakhan Kremlin. The Stroganovs, learning of this, decided to enlist Volga Cossacks to protect their settlements. Recruiters were sent to the Volga. The letter sent by the Stroganoffs to Yermak Timofeyevich, nicknamed Tukmak (the Wolf), in April 1579 stated: “We have fortresses and lands, but not enough troops: come to us to defend the Great Perm and the eastern edge of Christianity. In June of the same year Yermak with a squad of Cossacks arrived to the Stroganovs.
The Stroganovs paid for Yermak”s military campaigns against the Siberian Tatars and other nationalities. Only the first two of them cost a large sum for those times – 20 thousand rubles. The Siberian campaign of Ermak in 1581 was also paid by the Stroganovs. Equipment team cost more than 10 thousand rubles. After the capture of the capital of the Siberian khanate Isker (Siber), Ivan the Terrible was informed of the Siberian victory. In the answer gifts and gratitude have been received.
Semyon Anikeyevich Stroganov and Anikey”s grandsons – Maxim Yakovlevich Stroganov and Nikita Grigorievich Stroganov called in 1581 Yermak with a detachment for a campaign to Siberia. N.M. Karamzin called Semyon Anikeevich Stroganov a “Russian Pisarro.
After the murder of Semen Anikeevich, his second wife, Evdokiya Nesterovna Stroganova (April 1, 1561-19 (29) November 1638) headed the family – all the famous Stroganov descendants descended from this couple, the other branches, except for “okrestyanivshih”. The marriage with Lachinova was beneficial because she was the sister of the Solikamsk governor.
The Time of Troubles strengthened the Stroganovs” position, and their possessions were not ravaged by the fighting. In 1605 the Stroganoffs and their subjects meekly swore allegiance to False Dmitry I. In 1609, at the request of Vasily Shuisky, the Stroganoffs sent a retinue to Moscow to protect them from False Dmitry II. Maksim Stroganov received a letter from Prince Skopin-Shuisky requesting money to pay for the troops. Stroganoff immediately allocated 1000 rubles. Some time later another 1500 rubles were allocated. By a charter of Tsar Vasily Shuisky Nikita Grigorievich Stroganov February 23 (March 5), 1610, and Peter and Andrew Semenovich Stroganov May 29 (June 8), 1610 for their diligent service to the king and Fatherland during the state distemper and the money loans (about 842 thousand rubles) were granted a special honorary title of eminent people. The Stroganovs sat at gala dinners in the XVII century next to the boyars at the patriarchs of Moscow. On the exceptionally high position of the Stroganoffs in the Russian kingdom is evidenced by the fact that the Sobor decree of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich (Ch. X, art. 94) honor “eminent persons Stroganoff” was protected personally, for their dishonor established a separate penalty (100 rubles. ), which was significantly higher than fines for dishonor of “guests”, that is, large merchants (50 rubles), smaller merchants “living hundred” (20, 15 and 10 rubles, respectively, depending on the affiliation to the “large”, “medium” or “smaller” article), posadsky people (7, 6 and 5 rubles) and other categories of free individuals and non-service population.
In the 17th century the Stroganovs developed on a large scale the salt industry in the Soli-Kamskaya area; salt mines were the main source of their income. At the same time the Stroganovs helped the Russian tsars a lot with money – for the Smolensk War and the Russian-Polish war of 1654-1667.
The possessions, fragmented between the heirs of the children of Anikei Stroganov, were united in the 80s of the 17th century by Grigori Dmitrievich Stroganov. Grigory Stroganoff received eight royal letters, six of which gave him lands and real estate in the Kama region: in the letter of 1685 – lands on the River Veslyane, in the letter of 1688 – on the River Yaikalskaya, in the letter of 1696 – lands on the River Yaikalskaya. In the charter from 1685 – the lands at the Veselnya river, the lands at the Yaiva river in 1688, the lands at the Lolog river in 1694, the lands at the Lena salt mines in 1697, the lands at the Zyryan salt mines in 1701 and the lands at the Obva, Kosva and Inva rivers in 1702. The total area of G. D. Stroganov”s Perm estate by the time of his death in 1715 was 6 million 639 thousand dessiatinas.
In the 17th century the Stroganovs were not the only salt producers of the Kama region. For example, in 1661-1662 years Balakhna salt merchants Sokolovs took at payoff at the river Lenva lands for the establishment of salt production. But in 1688 these fisheries were passed to Shustovs according to the petition they had filed in 1685 stating that there was no real fishery on the Lena river. Grigory Stroganov made a claim to these fisheries, having sent in 1696 a petition stating that the lands along the Lena river belonged to him. Stroganov achieved success – as a result of the conducted survey the Lena fishery lands were passed to him, and 15 “best” posadaschiki people who resisted the survey were sent with their families into exile to Azov. In 1697 Grigory Stroganov received on lease (and three years later in perpetual possession) treasury Zyryanovskie usolie. Grigory Stroganov, it is likely, was more influential than the local governor Solikamsk, as evidenced by this case: in 1698 the governor, Prince F. I. Dashkov put in the office of the local salt manufacturer AV Rostovschikov, but he filed a complaint and with the support of Stroganov voivod was removed from office.
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During the Northern War (1700-1721) the Stroganovs provided substantial funds to Tsar Peter I, founded a number of ironworks and other plants in the Urals.
In 1722, Alexander, Nikolai and Sergei Grigorievich Stroganoff were granted baronial titles, after which the title of eminent persons was removed from them.
Alexander Sergeevich Stroganov participated in the work of the commission on drafting the new Code under Catherine II, and in the late 18th – early 19th centuries he was the president of the Academy of Arts, the chief director of the Public Library, a member of the State Council. In 1761 he was elevated by the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire to the dignity of count.
Pavel Aleksandrovich Stroganov was a member of Alexander I”s Negative Committee, comrade (i.e., deputy) of the Minister of Internal Affairs. His wife Countess Sophia Vladimirovna Stroganova, the founder of the Maryino estate near Tosno, is known for her works in the field of forestry and the establishment of the School of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences.
Another count”s branch descends from G. A. Stroganov. Grigory Aleksandrovich Stroganov was a famous diplomat of his time.
His son Sergei Grigorievich Stroganov in 1859-1860 – Moscow governor-general;
Alexander Grigoryevich Stroganov – Minister of Internal Affairs in 1839-1841, from 1849 member of the State Council.
Many of the Stroganoffs are known for their interest in art, literature, history, and archaeology.
Among Sergei Grigorievich”s sons, two of them, Pavel Sergeevich Stroganov and Grigory Sergeevich Stroganov, were known for their collections.
The Stroganovs had the richest libraries, collections of paintings, coins, prints, medals, etc.
Sergei Aleksandrovich Stroganov, the last representative of the dynasty, was a naval officer who sponsored development in the field of weapons. He died in Nice in 1923.
According to the calculations of F. A. Volegov the Stroganovs received from the Russian tsars the following lands (a total of 10,382,347 dessiatinas):
From Peter the Great Grigory Stroganov received new lands 6 times: by letters patent in 1685, 1688, 1694, 1697, 1701 and 1702. As a result, by 1715 Grigory Stroganov owned 6 million 639 thousand dessiatinas of land. After the death of G. D. Stroganov in 1715, his possessions remained undivided for a long time.
In 1740 the three sons of G. D. Stroganov divided equally his property in Moscow, and on May 20, 1747 was divided by lot into three almost equal parts Perm estates:
In 1749 the Novousolskoye, Lena, Zyryanskoye and Chusovskoye salt mines were divided between the three brothers, while the lands of the upper Kama region and 1133 servants” quarters remained undivided family property. A.S. Stroganov unsuccessfully tried to develop the Southern Urals and built the Trinity-Satka factory there in 1755-1757, but the enterprise was unprofitable and had to sell it in 1769 to the merchant Luginin.
As a result of sales and marriages in the second half of the 18th century, a significant part of the Stroganov estate passed into the hands of the Vsevolozhskys, Golitsyns, Lazarevs, and Shakhovskys. Stroganoff property also decreased in the second half of the 18th century as the State Treasury confiscated part of the land for building factories. Alexander Stroganov first filed lawsuits to recover his estates, but in 1790 he abandoned his claims. In his petition of 1790 A. S. Stroganov agreed to “exclude those places where the state iron and copper factories are now located, as well as settlements of state peasants, because imitating the zealous love for the fatherland of my ancestors, on my own and good will I leave those places for factories and state settlements. Before his death in 1817 Paul, Alexander”s son, asked Emperor Alexander I to turn the Permian Stroganoff estate into a majorat. The imperial decree of August 11, 1817 ordered the Stroganoff estate to be handed over “intact from one person into possession of another” and forbade “to mortgage or sell it altogether or in parts, either into private hands or to the treasury, or to burden it with any debts in transactions or other obligations, assuming all such transactions to be void as regards this undivided estate, no matter where or by whom they were made”. The Perm estate had the status of a Majorate until 1917.
Despite the authorities” attempt to legally limit the disintegration of the Stroganovs” Perm estate, it continued until 1917. While in 1833 the Perm major had 1,551,625 dessiatinas of land, in 1859 only 1,456,476 dessiatinas of land. At the same time, the number of serfs on the estate increased from 57,778 male souls to 78,064 male souls between 1833 and 1858. The decay accelerated as a result of the abolition of serfdom at the Ural factories, as freed artisans were required to be given land. During the redemption of the Stroganov estates, which took place from 1872 to 1886, 700,982 dessiatinas of land were given to the former serfs, artisanal and rural workers.
The fact that by the end of the 1880s the area of the entail remained almost the same as it was in 1858 is connected with the fact that in 1872 and 1877 the Perm estate increased by adding lands of other branches of the Stroganoffs. In 1872 by the imperial decree the possessions of Count Sergei Grigorievich Stroganov – 593 964 decimeters of land with Kynovsky factory – were included into the Perm major. In 1877 Alexander Grigorievich Stroganoff sold his 150009 dessiatinas of land with the Lena salt works to the Perm majorat for 1 million roubles. As a result, in 1886 the Perm Stroganoff”s entail had 1,499,466.79 dessiatinas of land. S. A. Stroganoff increased it by buying from Demidovs Utkinsk factory in 1890 with 89 951 dessiatinas of land (however 24 081 dessiatinas of the purchase the count was forced to give the land to the population of this mining center). At the beginning of the 20th century the Stroganoff”s major was decreasing due to the ongoing demarcation with the workers and disputes with the neighbors. In 1907 – 1917 alone, 97,825 dessiatinas of land went to the foremen, former servants and artisanal workers of the Stroganov estate (not including the Utkinsk factory) as a result of litigation. In the end, by 1917 the Perm major had 1,464,576.81 dessiatinas of land.
After the October Revolution of 1917, the Stroganovs” property was nationalized. Thus, on January 5, 1918, the Ural Regional Council decided to nationalize the Bilimbayevsky Plant. On February 6, 1918 the Perm Provincial Executive Committee issued a regulation concerning the Stroganoff estates in the village of Ilyinsky (where the head office of the Stroganoffs” possessions in Perm was situated), which stated that “all agricultural, forest, water and industrial lands, which are national property, pass into the jurisdiction and disposal of the land committees. The committees also receive in their custody and disposal living and dead agricultural and industrial equipment, farmsteads and other buildings, as well as stocks of agricultural products belonging to the confiscated estate in question. On February 10, 1918 the Supreme Economic Council of the RSFSR passed decree No. 779 “On nationalization and organization of management of enterprises in the Urals”, according to which “the Perm estates of gr. Stroganoff (Dobryanka, Bilimbay, Utka, Ilyinskoye, Ochersky Kyn and others) were to be nationalized”. In spring of the same year nationalization of Dobryanskiy, Utkinskiy and salt works was carried out. On July 31, 1918 the Stroganov Palace was proclaimed a national property.
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Coat of Arms of Baron Stroganoff (Stroganov) with the title of Count of the Russian Empire
The shield is horizontally divided into two parts, of which in the upper part in the red field a silver bear”s head with an oblong neck turned to the right side is depicted. In the lower part is a white fur, and in the same shield from the right corner to the left shows a golden wavy band with three spear iron. On the shield is a crown peculiar to earls and on it three crowned helmets, decorated with kleinos; of them on the middle one is a black eagle with outspread wings; on the extreme ones: on the right side is a silver bear”s head, and on the left side is a black sable head. The sash on the shield is red and golden, lined with silver and azure. The shield is held by two sables. These sables, as well as the bear”s head, mean that the ancestors of the Barons Stroganoff contributed to the acquisition of Siberia and provided important assistance in preserving the cities of the Perm region.
Coat of Arms was included in the General Armorial of Noble Families of the All-Russian Empire, Part 1, 1st Department, page. 33.
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Coat of Arms of the Baron Stroganoffs (Stroganovs)
The shield is horizontally divided into two parts, of which in the upper part in the red field a silver bear”s head with an oblong neck turned to the right side is depicted. In the lower part is a white fur, and in the same shield from the right corner to the left shows a golden wavy band with three spear iron. On the shield is a crown peculiar to barons and on it a silver bear”s head. The scarf on the shield is red and gold, lined with silver and azure. The shield is held by two sables. These sables, as well as the bear”s head, mean that the ancestors of the barons Stroganoff contributed to the acquisition of Siberia and provided important assistance in preserving the cities of the Perm region.
Coat of Arms was included in the General Armorial of Noble Families of the All-Russian Empire, Part 1, 1st Department, page. 34.
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Coat of Arms of the Count Stroganoff (Stroganov)
The shield is horizontally divided into two parts, of which in the upper part in the red field a silver bear”s head with an oblong neck turned to the right side is depicted. In the lower part is a white fur, and in the same shield from the right corner to the left shows a golden wavy band with two iron spear. In the center of the shield is superimposed a small gold shield with a black double-headed eagle, on the chest of which is the monogram of Paul I. On the shield is a crown peculiar to earls and on it three crowned helmets, decorated with cloins; of them on the middle one is a black eagle with outspread wings; on the extreme ones: on the right side is a silver bear head, and on the left side a black sable head.
Coat of arms is included in the General Armorial of Noble Families of the All-Russian Empire, Part 2, 1st Department, page. 16.
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Coat of Arms of Count Stroganoff (Strogonov)
The shield horizontally divided, has two parts, of which in the upper part in the red field is depicted a silver bear”s head, turned to the right side. In the lower part is a white fur, in the same shield from the upper right corner to the lower left is a golden wavy belt with four iron pikes and in the middle is a small blue shield in which is depicted a crowned eagle holding in his paws the scepter and the orb, which on the breast in a small blue shield is the monogram of HIS HONOUR LORD OF GOD THE Czar Imperial Majesty Nicholas I. On the shield is set the earl”s crown on which are three helmets surmounted: the middle one by the earl”s crown and the outer ones by the crowns of the nobility. On the middle crown is a black double-headed crowned eagle and on the outer arms of one arm in silver armor, holding on the right side a golden cross and on the left the sword. The nameplate on the shield is silver and gold, lined with blue and red. The shield is held by two sables. Under the shield is a motto: “Ferram opes patriae, sibi nomen” (“I will bring the fatherland wealth, myself (leave) the name”) Coat of arms of the Count Stroganoff (Strogonov) made in Part 10 of the General Armorial of Noble Families of the Russian Empire, page. 12.
In Moscow, September 30, 2010 a memorial cross was erected and a memorial plaque inscribed with the names of the barons and “distinguished men” Stroganoff, buried under the vaults of St. Nicholas Cathedral in Kotelniki.
A meat dish called Beef Stroganoff was named after one of the Stroganoff gourmands.
In late 2017 – early 2018, the Perm Art Gallery hosted a large exhibition with the participation of the Hermitage, the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, the State Russian Museum, and other museums entitled “The Stroganovs – Collectors”. In 2019, the State Hermitage Museum hosted an exhibition of works of art from the collection of Count Pavel Sergeyevich Stroganov, “The Forgotten Russian Philanthropist”