Galicia (Polish Galicja, Ukrainian Галичина Halytschyna, Yiddish גאַליציע Galitsye) is a historical landscape in southern Poland and western Ukraine. Its capital was Lviv (Polish Lwów, Ukrainian Львів Lviv).
In 1772, parts of Lesser Poland, Podolia, Ruthenia and the Carpathian foothills, which had previously belonged to Poland-Lithuania, came under the Austrian House of Habsburg as part of the first partition of Poland. As the so-called Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, the region was annexed to the Austrian Empire in 1804 and from 1867 to 1918 belonged to the Cisleithanian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The names Galicia and Lodomeria are transliterations of the cities Halytsch (Latinized Galicia) on the Dniester and Wolodymyr (Latinized Lodomeria) in Volhynia. In their new form, the names were part of the Hungarian royal titulature because the principality of Halytsch-Volhynia had briefly belonged to the Kingdom of Hungary in the 14th century under King Louis I of Hungary and Poland (initially through the governor Vladislaus II of Opole) and Queen Mary of Hungary. From there the name was adopted as a designation for the countryside that had come to the Habsburg Monarchy at the first partition of Poland.
The phonetic similarity with the Spanish region of Galicia (Galicia in Spanish) is coincidental.
Coat of arms
The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria shows in the blue shield divided by red bars above a black jackdaw and below three golden royal crowns. From 1772 to 1804 the Galician coat of arms showed only two or three golden crowns against a blue background. On older coats of arms the closed bow crown of the kingdom adorned the shield.
Conjectures have been published about the choice of the heraldic animal. The jackdaw is supposed to have been an idea of Austrian officials during the introduction of the new coat of arms in 1804, because there were many jackdaws in Galicia. Because “jackdaw” in East Slavic languages means “галка” (pronounced “galka” or “halka”), the coat of arms may have been made “talking” in this way. Initially, the coat of arms is said to have shown the “unshaped” eagle of the coat of arms of Halytsch. The place name gave its name to Galicia and in its turn derives from “галка”. However, according to a map from 1831 depicting Poland in 1764, the heraldic animal of Halytsch was already a jackdaw and thus already “talking”.
The territory of Galicia (in the borders of the crown land of 1914) covered 78,502 km² and covers today:
In Galicia there is a part of the Ukrainian Carpathians and on the border with Transcarpathia there is the Howerla, the highest mountain of Ukraine with 2060 m.
See also: Encyclopedia of Ukraine
In 1776, 311 places (towns and markets) in the crown land had municipal rights, the largest of which were:
These villages actually had the character of towns, in contrast to the other villages, the majority of whose population lived from agriculture. Under Joseph II (1741-1790), the administration sought to desurbanize the crown land in order to bring these places under noble jurisdiction.
After the third partition of Poland in 1795, the number of towns with city rights increased to over 400, of which Kraków (Polish: Kraków, Ukra. Краків
Urbanization was accelerated only in the second half of the 19th century. In the early 20th century, fifteen cities had over fourteen thousand inhabitants, including:
Population by vernacular according to censuses:
In the 1851 census, 312,962 (6.87%) Jews were still counted separately; these were counted as German speakers in subsequent censuses insofar as they were Yiddish speakers.
The population by religion
Second Polish Republic (from 1919)
Population by nationality according to censuses (the 1921 census asked about “nationality”, the 1931 census asked about “language”):
The peculiarities of Eastern Galicia included so-called Latins (Polish Łacinnicy, Ukrainian Латинники), i.e. Ukrainian-speaking Roman Catholics and Greek-Catholic Poles, who were not simply adjusted to the statistics above.
After the Germanic tribes (Lugier and Gepids) living there had left the area of the later Galicia at the time of the migration of the peoples, it was settled since the middle of the 6th century by Slavs, who west of the Sans belonged to the Lechic West Slavs, east of it to the East Slavs. The western tribes (spatially belonging to the later Lesser Poland) united with Poland under Boleslaw I Chrobry, after temporarily joining the Great Moravian state in the 9th century and the Bohemian state in the 10th century. The eastern tribes, on the other hand, subordinated themselves to the Grand Prince of Kiev and only temporarily also came under the rule of Boleslav.
Principalities of Volhynia, Halytsch and Halytsch-Volodymyr
After various turmoils, two larger principalities were consolidated in the 12th century: Halytsch and Volodymyr, which also gave rise to the name of the later Habsburg crown lands of Galicia and Lodomeria. Both principalities were characterized by flourishing trade and prosperity.
The country was repeatedly the scene of battles between Rus, Hungary and Poland. In 1182 Casimir, Duke of the Poles, expelled Prince Roman Mstislavich. Nevertheless, Roman later managed to bring the area under his control and in 1199 united Halytsch with the principality of Volodymyr to form the principality of Halich-Volhynia. However, he fell in battle against Poland in 1205. In the same year the Hungarian king Andrew II took the title of Galiciae et Lodomeriae Rex. In 1225 Roman’s son Daniel Romanovich of Galicia ruled the Duchy of Halytsch, but temporarily lost it again to Hungary in 1236.
The Mongol storm of 1241 severely affected Galicia, and Daniel was forced to recognize the supremacy of the Golden Horde. After the Mongol storm, the Grand Duchy of Kiev also sank to insignificance. The princes of Galicia sought a protective link with the West and sought union with the Catholic Church. Daniel had himself crowned “King of Rus” by the Pope in 1253 after he converted to the Catholic faith. His son Lev and grandson Yuri also held this title. Under the later sovereigns, however, the country, although it had extended its rule beyond Kiev, became more and more dilapidated.
Poland-Lithuania (Polish dominion and Grand Duchy of Lithuania)
After the death of the last Rurikid prince in 1332, his nephew, a scion of the Mazovian branch of the Piasts, became ruler of Halytch-Volhynia: Bolesław George II. In 1340 he was poisoned by boyars who accused him of favoring Catholics. A power struggle ensued between Poland, whose Piasts made dynastic claims, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which already ruled other Ruthenian territories, and the Golden Horde, which claimed tributary rule over almost all Ruthenian principalities in the wake of Mongol rule.
The most important parts of the disputed territory were subdued by the Polish King Casimir the Great. These included the cities of Halytsch, Lemberg, Chełm, Bełz, Volodymyr, the Sanok land and the Podolia region. Thus began the Polonization of the country and the increasing imposition of the Catholic Church. Under Louis the Great, who ruled Poland and Hungary in personal union, the Catholic hierarchy was permanently established. Under his rule, the area became part of Hungary in 1378. After Louis’ death in 1382, the Lithuanian Grand Duke Jagiełło married the Polish Queen Jadwiga, and the two countries thus became permanently linked, initially in personal union. Jagiełło conquered Galicia again for Poland in 1387, with which it remained until the First Partition of Poland in 1772.
When in 1569 in the Union of Lublin Poland and Lithuania merged into the Polish-Lithuanian Noble Republic, Galicia was also divided into voivodeships:
The Ukrainian part of the population in the Lviv archparchy belonged largely to Eastern Catholic churches only from 1677 (81 years after the Union of Brest).
The Roman Catholic population lived already in the time of the Principality of Halytsch on the western edge around Rzeszów and Krosno and was present in more important towns. After the Polish capture it increased in the German-legal colonization, including with participation of so-called Forest Germans. Before the establishment of the ecclesiastical province in Halytsch in 1375 (Lviv became its seat in 1412), there were about 20 Roman Catholic churches and three monasteries in the Przemyśl diocese. By contrast, in the 14th century, the Lviv archdiocese included about 12 to 16 Roman Catholic parishes mostly for German townspeople. Peasant Roman Catholic settlement began in the Lviv region after 1386. Between 1400 and 1420 German law was explicitly handed down (in preserved documents) in eleven villages for Roman Catholics (Hodovytsia, Hamaliivka, Mavkovychi, Cherlyany, Subra, Davydiv, Novosiltsi, Strilyshcha, Malechiv, Klekotiv and Werbisch). It was not an extensive colonization, but in the early 16th century in ten out of seventeen villages, where several inhabitants appeared in the sources, people with Polish surnames dominated (Bilka, Chyshky, Davydiv, Hodovytsia, Kamyanobrid, Yampil, Rodatychi, Sokilnyky, Symna Voda, Subra). Besides, Poles lived for the most part most probably also in Berezdiwzi, Hrybovychi, Malechiv, Pidvyssoke, Porichchya, Vyshnyany, Sbojishcha and Shovtanzi, and additionally hypothetically in Malchyzi and Hrimne; Polish settlement is reflected in Lviv Land also in the place names Lackie (Chervone), Lachowice (Podorozhnye) and of four Laszki (intentionally depolonized after the war with names like Murowane, Sastawne), similar to e.g. b. Czech (Selenyj Haj, formerly Uherce), Pomorans – Pomorjany, Prussians – Jampil. Kurt Lück in his research in the 1930s also saw in the villages of Samarstyniw, Klepariw and Tschyschky initially German settlements, and among others in Krotoschyn and Saschkiw mixed villages. By the 16th century, the descendants of the German townspeople had become Polishized, and the Polish language gained increasing prestige. Among numerous smaller Polish language islands the largest were around Przemyśl, Mostyska, Horodok, and Lviv, located in a latitudinal county and sometimes referred to as the Polish Corridor.
After the Polish Golden Age (16th century) and Silver Age (17th century), there was an economic crisis due to the “Century of Wars” (from the Ottoman-Polish War of 1620-1621 to the Great Northern War).
Occupation by the partitioning powers
The Confederation of Bar caused unrest in southern Poland in the years 1768 to 1772.
Already in 1769 the pledged territory of Spiš was occupied by the Austrian troops, in the next year followed parts of the Starosteien of Nowy Targ, Czorsztyn and Nowy Sącz with the land of Muszyna. On May 21, 1771, the Polish noble families were defeated by Russia in the decisive battle at Lanckorona.
The Petersburg Agreement was concluded in February 1772 between Prussia, Russia and Austria. The military occupation was led by Field Marshal Nicholas I Joseph Esterházy de Galantha with General Andreas Hadik from Hungary and General Richard d’Alton from Silesia. D’Alton’s army marched into Poland at Biala on May 12, and two days later a corps from Prešov crossed the Hungarian-Polish border. D’Alton followed the retreating Russian troops and captured the castle at Lanckorona on June 8, then occupied Tyniec and Wieliczka by June 11. In late July he established his headquarters at Tarnów. Andreas Hadik captured Jarosław and Przemyśl before the end of June, bringing the occupation zone to the Vistula-San line. It was not until mid-September 1772 that Field Marshal Esterházy’s army set up shop in previously Russian-occupied Lviv.
The next conference of the three states in St. Petersburg approved the first partition of Poland on August 5, 1772. On September 11, the Habsburg manifesto on the justification of the partition was published. Still in September, the first governor, Johann Anton von Pergen, was appointed by the Viennese government in Lviv. The next year, on September 30, 1773, the Polish Sejm was forced to confirm the partition. The imperial manifesto of November 15, 1773, obliged local representatives of the nobility, burghers, Jews, and others to pay homage to Maria Theresa in ceremonies in numerous localities on December 29, 1773. The greatest resistance of the nobility was later broken by threats of confiscations.
In 1772, during the first partition of Poland, Galicia or Ruthenia Voivodeship and the southern part of Lesser Poland (parts of Sandomir and Krakow Voivodeships with Silesia District: Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator) fell to the Habsburg Monarchy. They were combined with previously occupied Nowy Targ, Czorsztyn and Nowy Sącz to form the crown land “Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria”. Galicia was initially divided into six parts (Lviv, Halytsch, Belz
Count Johann Anton von Pergen became the civil governor. In 1774 Austria acquired Bukovina from the Ottoman Empire. In 1786 it was incorporated into the crown land of Galicia. In the following years, under Joseph II, thousands of families, mainly from the Palatinate, immigrated to Galicia and settled there, mostly in newly founded settlements, as German communities. In 1795, after the Third Partition of Poland, large areas of the remaining Polish state, including Krakow and Lublin, became part of the Habsburg Empire. They were incorporated into the crown land of Galicia as Western Galicia. In 1809, after the peace treaty of Schönbrunn, Zamosc County was ceded to the Duchy of Warsaw. A year later, in 1810, Austria ceded the counties of Tarnopol and Czortkov to Russia, but received them back in 1814 in the Peace of Paris.
In 1846 the Republic of Krakow was annexed to Austria, and in 1849 it became part of the Crown Land of Galicia as the Grand Duchy of Krakow. In contrast, Bukovina was elevated to its own crown land in the same year. The name of the crown land was now officially Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria with the Grand Duchy of Krakow and the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator.
After the incorporation of Galicia into the Habsburg Hereditary Lands, a census was conducted at the insistence of the Imperial Army. In 1773, Galicia had an area of 83,000 km² with about 2.65 million inhabitants distributed among 280 towns and markets and about 5500 villages. There were almost 19,000 noble families with 95,000 dependents. The unfree inhabitants numbered 1.86 million, i.e. more than 70% of the population. A small part of them were full farmers, the vast majority (84%) of the unfree had little or no property.
There were more than 4,000 Catholic churches and 244 synagogues and almost 16,000 inns; there was one inn for every 160 inhabitants. Furthermore, 216 monasteries, 363 castles and 6450 noble farms were counted. The residential buildings were divided into 121,000 bourgeois and peasant houses, 15,700 houses inhabited by Jews and 322,000 peasant huts (chalupes, smoke houses without chimneys).
There were many ethnic groups living in Galicia: Poles, Ruthenians (Ukrainians), Russians, Germans, Armenians, Jews, Moldovans (Romanians), Hungarians, Roma, Lipovans and others. Poles, Ruthenians and Jews made up the largest proportion, the former largely inhabiting the western part of the country, while the Ruthenians predominantly inhabited the eastern part (Ruthenia). Jews and Armenians preferentially dominated commerce, with Jews making up about eight percent of the population at the time.
In old statistics one can find information about the number of Poles, Ruthenians and Jews in the population. However, it is difficult to define the difference between ethnic, linguistic and national affiliation, since censuses did not record nationality, but colloquial language.
The denomination is therefore used as another distinguishing feature: The Poles were Roman Catholic, the Ruthenians belonged mostly to the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, rarely to the Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church which had adherents in the northeast of the Kingdom of Hungary. Their followers are often referred to as Uniates because they recognize the pope as their head. The antagonism between Poles and Ruthenians was caused not only by the economic oppression of the Ruthenians by the Polish nobility, but also by different religious views.
The third large denominational group was the Jews, who mostly strictly adhered to their faith. In Galicia, since the 18th century, the mystical movement of Hasidism had a very wide following. There were also some Jewish sects, among which were the agricultural Caraeans, who were characterized by particularly strict rites. The Jews of Galicia mostly belonged to the Ashkenazim, whose ancestors had immigrated from Germany in the Middle Ages.
The Catholic churches in Lviv, which were about the same size, were presided over by an archbishop for the Roman Catholics and a metropolitan for the Uniates. The Jews were subordinated to the district rabbis in the district towns, otherwise to the community leaders. The Protestants of the Church of the Augsburg Confession and the Church of the Helvetic Confession, who later came to the country as settlers, had the Superintendency of Galicia as their highest regional church authority. The Mennonites, who also came to the country as German-speaking settlers at the end of the 18th century, formed the Lviv-Kiernica congregation with several community centers.
The Polish nobility and the higher clergy initially lost the prerogatives they had acquired over centuries. The crown made a sustained effort to reconcile with the nobility. In 1775, Austria established a Galician Diet, a kind of parliament of the nobility. In doing so, it elevated the Polish nobility in importance even above the hereditary nobility in the mother country. Every Polish nobleman was given a knighthood, and many members of the nobility, former castellans, voivodes and starosts were raised to the rank of count in return for the fourth part of the tax that would otherwise have been levied. In this way, Vienna wanted to secure loyal partners.
For the unfree peasants, in many cases Ruthenians, little changed at first; their views were not raised by anyone and remained irrelevant.
All the measures planned by the House of Habsburg presupposed a functioning bureaucracy, which had not existed before. Therefore, not only German teachers, doctors, technicians and lawyers, but also many Austrian administrators were seconded to the new crown land, rejected as occupiers by the intelligentsia there.
In 1776 there were 724 civil servants in the country, within four years this number increased to 17,135. The central administration, the Gubernium, was established in Lviv, headed by a governor appointed by the emperor.
However, not least due to the establishment of the regional authorities, the cities, which had languished after their heyday in the Renaissance, took on a new lease of life. The most important trading cities at the beginning of the 19th century were Lviv and Brody.
Farmers accounted for the largest share of the labor force; their opportunities for development were slim. Since the economic forms were extremely backward compared to Western Europe, the yields remained low despite high labor-intensive employment. The large estates mostly formed Meierhöfe, which were leased out by the landlords. The unfree subjects were allowed to marry only with the lord’s permission and had to buy the permission for money. Leaving the service without permission resulted in the harshest punishments. The sons were not allowed to learn a trade because this would have deprived the landlord of manpower.
The peasant who was not free had to pay his landlord a lot of the income he earned. In addition, the peasants had to perform forced labor: on average, each family had to work about two months per year. These duties were not bound to the person, but to the property. Therefore, even a nobleman, when he took over a farm from a landlord, was obliged to pay interest and to perform robot, but he did not do the work personally. The tax payment of the mostly noble landowners to the land, on the other hand, consisted exclusively of a land tax, which was extraordinarily low. Thus, before 1772 for the area of one Łan
Only a little more than eleven percent of the total area was cultivated, half of the land consisted of pastures and meadows. The fields were subject to three-field farming, but one year of fallow was often not enough, so that the fields sometimes had to remain uncultivated for three or even four years before sowing again produced a harvest. The cultivation of fodder crops (especially clover, as was already common in other countries at the time) was unknown, so that field fertilization remained meager. Since there was no stabling of livestock, another source of fertilizer production was eliminated. Yields were therefore extremely meager; they often amounted to just twice the amount sown. The amount of rye produced was about 190 liters per inhabitant. Bread therefore had to be baked largely from oats and barley, because the amount of rye produced was far from sufficient, since moreover quite a bit was exported and a considerable proportion was distilled into schnapps.
Alcoholism among the rural population was a major problem, especially since it was encouraged by contractual obligations to the landlords to buy them a predetermined quantity of liquor from their distilleries.
Industry was practically non-existent in this resource-rich land, except for the only tobacco factory in Wynnyky, a leather factory in Busk and a few iron hammer and smelting works. Only salt played a noteworthy role, with the addition of a few glassworks. These two industries also played an ominous role: the energy needed to boil salt and to extract potash for glassmaking caused overexploitation of the forests, so that the towns soon faced an almost insurmountable problem in obtaining the heating material they needed in winter. Planned reforestation did not take place. In western Galicia, home weaving was practiced.
The main reason for the conditions described above was the poor state of the school system. There were practically no schools in the countryside, and only a few in the cities, so that the majority of the population was illiterate.
The situation of crafts and agriculture at the time of the constitution of the crown land of Galicia was extremely backward compared to the countries of Western Europe. Joseph II therefore decided in his settlement patent of September 17, 1781, to recruit tradesmen, craftsmen and farmers for the new crown land. The idea was by no means to Germanize the country; rather, the new settlers were expected to serve as an instructive role model. The Palatinates from the Rhine were particularly suitable, because the unfortunate division of the real estate there had made the farms so small that, on the one hand, intensive field farming had to be developed and, on the other hand, the peasants had to have craft skills to earn the necessary sideline income.
The incentive to migrate to Galicia was great, because the authorities provided the new colonists with land, dwelling house, stable, livestock and farming equipment free of charge. The size of the farms was about 4, 8 or 15 hectares according to today’s land measure, it depended on the amount of capital brought, the size of the family and the quality of the field. The colonists were exempt from all taxes for ten years, the farm owners and their eldest sons were exempt from military service. Moreover, in the Tolerance Patent of November 10, 1781, the Protestant new citizens were allowed to practice their religion to an extent that was still unthinkable in the Archduchy of Austria.
From June 1782 to January 1786, 14,735 colonists arrived in the country. They were settled either in newly founded villages or in extensions of already existing villages (so-called attinences).
The crown estates of the Polish crown used by Austria for colonization and those of the contemplative monasteries abandoned by order of Joseph II throughout his dominions were located almost exclusively in the western part of the country. In eastern Galicia, where under the even more backward agriculture of the Ruthenians an improvement through the settlement of immigrants from the German lands seemed even more desirable, no state land was available. The Austrian administration therefore successfully tried to encourage the Polish landowners to settle German colonists on their estates as well under similar conditions (so-called private colonization).
In 1783, Joseph II enacted a comprehensive tax reform that sought a more equitable distribution of burdens independent of noble privileges.
Austrian Empire 1804
In 1804 Galicia became an integral part of the new Austrian Empire.
The Duchy of Auschwitz-Zator, temporarily separated from Galicia and assigned to Austrian Silesia from 1818 and 1820-1850, respectively, was a formal member of the German Confederation during the period, although it had been subject to Poland and not to the Holy Roman Empire before 1772.
Galicia elected deputies to the Imperial Council, the parliament in Vienna, in 1907 and 1911 under universal male suffrage (see also List of Electoral Districts in the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria).
With the outbreak of the 1848 Revolution, the Ukrainian question became a political one. Before the revolution, there had been a Ukrainian national revival in Galicia and Transcarpathia, but the movement had been purely cultural.
In the Habsburg Monarchy, the Revolution played a crucial role in the process of the emergence of Ukrainian political organizations and the formation of the modern Ukrainian identity in Western Ukraine.
On May 2, 1848, the first representative political organization in Ukraine, the Supreme Council of Ruthenians, was founded in Lviv. The creation of a predominantly Ukrainian crown land within the Habsburg monarchy became the main political goal of the Ukrainians.
There was considerable unrest in Lviv. When the Poles tried to exploit the turmoil of the 1848 revolution for their own ends, the commanding Austrian general Hammerstein strongly opposed their efforts to overthrow them and even bombed the city of Lviv in November 1848, setting fire to many important old buildings. Eventually, the academy, the university library, the old theater, and the city hall all fell victim to the flames. Galicia had to endure the state of siege until 1854.
As a result of the Polish uprising in 1848 (Great Polish Uprising), the Republic of Krakow was abolished in the same year with the consent of the protecting powers. In 1849, this area with the city was declared a Grand Duchy and assigned to Galicia. Bukovina, on the other hand, became its own crown land in the same year.
At that time Galicia had 5.3 million inhabitants living in about 300 towns and market towns and in 6300 villages.
As a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Galicia was also granted greater autonomy. It now belonged to the Cisleithanian half of the empire.
The entire population had uniform Austrian citizenship with equal rights and duties, and all ethnic groups and religions had equal rights. A settlement was agreed with the Poles. Emperor Franz Joseph I agreed to the Polonization of education and administration. In other areas, the Poles were also granted growing influence, so that from 1867 there was de facto autonomy for Galicia. Self-government was expressed in the Diet and the Provincial Committee (the Provincial Government), while the administration of the whole state remained with the Imperial and Royal Governorate in Lemberg, which was subordinate to the Viennese government. The administration of the entire state remained with the k.k. governorate in Lemberg, which was subordinate to the Viennese government, and with the newly organized 74 district governorates. (The formal organization was the same as in the other crown lands of Cisleithania).
In 1873, Galicia was finally granted full autonomy under Polish leadership. The Polish nobility, led by Count Agenor Goluchowski, now began a process of nationalization that would ensure Polish domination in all areas. Due to the curia suffrage, Poles had an absolute majority in the Galician Diet for a long time. In the imperial and royal Austrian government there was a minister for Galicia who was always of Polish nationality until the end of the monarchy. Polish politicians were also appointed by the emperor to other important ministerial posts in the k.k. Government in Vienna. Until the end of the monarchy, the Polish Club in the Austrian Imperial Council was the most united national faction, which ultimately supported the domestic and foreign policies of the Viennese government without reservation and was rewarded for this with favors and benefits for Galicia.
As early as 1866, Polish was elevated to the status of an official language, and from 1869 its use in official matters was obligatory.
Polish-dominated autonomy overrode the wishes of the Ruthenians (Ukrainians) in eastern Galicia. This had detrimental consequences not only for the Ruthenians, but also for the small German minority in Galicia. While the rights and conditions once granted to the immigrants by Joseph II had long since fallen victim to the central bureaucracy of the Austrian monarchy, even worse times were now dawning for the Germans. The official language became Polish, and the use of German in the civil service was restricted to a minimum (only the imperial and royal military and the imperial and royal family were allowed to speak German). Military and the k.k. State Railways remained with the German official language).
The Diet of the Crown Land consisted (as of 1894) of 151 members: three archbishops, five bishops, two university rectors, 44 deputies of the large landed estates, 20 of the cities and markets, three of the chambers of commerce and industry, 74 of the rural municipalities. The provincial committee (the provincial government) had six members. Galicia elected 63 of the then 353 deputies to the Imperial Council, the all-Austrian parliament; only Bohemia was more strongly represented, with 92 deputies.
At that time, Galicia had 6.6 million inhabitants, 74 district governorates subordinate to the imperial and royal The region had 74 district governorates subordinate to the k.k. governorate and the magistrates of Lviv (32 km², 128,000 inhabitants) and Krakow (8 km², 75,000 inhabitants), two higher regional courts, two regional courts, 13 district courts and 164 district courts. Furthermore, Galicia had two operational directorates of the k.k. State Railways, 671 post offices, 528 telegraph offices, and chambers of commerce and trade in Lviv, Cracow and Brody.
In the late 1800s, serfdom was abolished and the peasantry could no longer use land for themselves without having to pay for it. Therefore, starting in 1880, there was a mass emigration of Ukrainians to the USA, Canada, Brazil and Argentina. In 1900, 40% of the land was owned by large landowners.
In the structurally weak regions, the rural population, as well as the largely unassimilated Jews in the east, found it difficult to survive. The government of the time had no interest in improving conditions for the peasants, and this led to major strikes – 1902 was the largest, when over 200,000 peasants took part in the agricultural workers’ strike.
The strikes of the peasantry laid the foundations for the peasant parties that were powerful in the interwar period. The liberal intellectual climate on the eve of World War I also enabled the formation of paramilitary units to fight for the regaining of independence. Initially, however, there was a lack of a clear and generally supported political concept for further development.
The population increased to more than eight million people by 1914. Arable land became scarce and unaffordable for farmers. By 1914, 380,000 inhabitants had emigrated overseas and to the province of Posen due to this hardship, or went to Germany, France or Denmark as seasonal workers.
Poles were always in the majority in Western Galicia and Ruthenians in Eastern Galicia. In 1900, Poles accounted for 54.75% of the population, Ruthenians for 42.20%, and Germans for 2.9%. Poles made up the Galician nobility, the urban population and, in the west, also the peasantry. In terms of religion, 46% of Galicians were Catholics, 42.5% Greek Catholics, 11% Jews and 0.5% Protestants.
The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria had an area of 78,497 km² in 1914. The capital was Lviv (today Ukrainian Lviv).
Censuses revealed the following population figures in the years since 1869:
In 1890 there were 84 inhabitants per square kilometer and in 1892 there was a birth surplus of 10 per 1000 inhabitants.
In the years 1780 to 1785, the Vienna Main Road (later an imperial road) from Vienna to Lviv was built, also called Kaiser-Chaussee, Vienna Postal Route or Vienna Main Comercial Road (W.H. on the maps) (Polish Trakt środkowogalicyjski), to integrate the newly conquered land. The road, in this area of hitherto unknown quality, passed through Olomouc in Moravia, Friedek, Teschen and Bielitz in Silesia, in Galicia through Biala, Kęty, Andrychów, Wadowice, Myślenice, Gdów, Bochnia, Brzesko, Tarnów, Ropczyce, Rzeszów, Przeworsk, Jarosław, Przemyśl and Horodok (Gródek).
The engineer of this road, Johann Gross, built almost 2000 km of solid roads in the first 30 years, including a paved shortcut over the Kocierska Pass (718 m) in the Small Beskydy Mountains and over Saybush (continuing via Trenèín).
The first railroad line in Galicia was opened in 1847 with the Kraków-Upper Silesia Railway. The construction had begun on the initiative of the Senate of the City of Krakow in 1844 in the still partially independent Republic of Krakow. This was followed by the construction of the a. priv. Kaiser Ferdinands-Nordbahn (KFNB) from Vienna to Krakow. The Vienna Main Road lost its importance.
In 1892, the Galician railroad network, largely operated by the imperial and royal state railroads with their directorate in Lviv, covered 2704 km. State Railways with its directorate in Lviv, covered 2704 km. The Galician network included:
In 1901, three express trains ran daily from Kraków Central Station to Vienna North Station; they covered the 413 km route in seven to eight and a half hours. The journey from Kraków to Lviv took about six hours. In 1901, direct scheduled, dining and sleeping cars ran from Vienna to Kraków, Lviv, Podwoloczyska (then the border between Bukovina and Romania). The Vienna-Warsaw connection of the Northern Railway also ran through Galicia. The main railroad station built in Lviv in 1904, from which numerous international train connections started, symbolizes the importance of railroad transport at that time.
On June 1, 1901, the construction of the Odra-Vistula-Dniester Canal was approved by the Austrian House of Representatives through a bill, but it was never realized.
Furthermore, at that time there were about 13,000 km of land roads and more than 2000 km of waterways.
Until the end of World War I, Galicia had the largest oil reserves in Europe; the Galician oil fields had been exploited industrially since the second half of the 19th century. In the process, an annual output of one million tons was achieved by 1900, and in 1912 Austria-Hungary rose to become the third largest oil-producing country in the world after the United States and Russia, with a production of 2.9 million tons of crude oil, almost all of which was extracted in Galicia. In 1910, 2.1 million tons of petroleum were produced in Galicia, which represented about five percent of world production.
Other branches of the economy, however, were hardly developed. At the time of the founding, the country had almost no industry, but also trades and crafts worked with technically long outdated processes. At the turn of the 19th century there were some beginnings of improvement, but mining was underdeveloped, also in view of the rich mineral resources such as iron, lead, coal, salt. In Drohobych district there was the only significant ironworks, with an annual capacity of about 450 tons of cast and wrought iron. A mining district (Polish Zagłębie Krakowskie = Kraków mining district) was established in the western Galician district of Chrzanów, and the town of Biała with Silesian Bielitz (today Bielsko-Biała) became the third center of the textile industry in Austria, along with Brno and Liberec.
Salt was also extracted, largely by boiling, whereby the wood required for firing was again a decisive factor. In 1791, more than 10,000 tons of common salt were produced in Sambor County by the boiling process, and some of it was sold outside the country.
Crafts were mostly limited to satisfying the modest needs of the rural population. Somewhat greater importance was given to the many home weavers and potters. In Tomaczow in eastern Galicia there was a faience factory that produced very good goods and also exported them. The home weavers mostly produced very coarse linen or drillich, which brought only a modest profit. Flax and hemp were also grown and preferably made into rope for horse harnesses. Where there were still oak forests worth mentioning, the production of barrel staves, but especially of ship planks, and even the construction of entire ships for the San and Vistula rivers, was the main activity. Of lesser importance was the trade in honey and wax, the latter, if possible in the bleached state, was important for the indispensable production of candles in addition to tallow.
On economic discrimination against Jewish Galicians by Polish decision-makers, see the section “Jewish Population.”
The universities of Cracow and Lviv, where a number of Polish scientists were educated, exerted an important influence on intellectual life. In return, the Polish conservative camp assured its loyalty to the House of Habsburg. The two universities had about 2,500 students at that time, and the language of instruction was Polish. There were also three theological colleges, an art school and a school of arts and crafts, and ten educational institutions for teachers. The University of Lviv had been founded in 1784 and was slow to get off the ground. At the instigation of Joseph II, the then famous Garellian Library had been brought from Vienna to Lviv. However, during the suppression of the uprising in 1848, the Austrian military then not only shot and destroyed some buildings in the city, but also destroyed this library.
Lviv, the provincial capital, housed a multitude of administrative, ecclesiastical and judicial institutions. The city soon achieved remarkable prosperity, and public life emulated that in Vienna. Nevertheless, intellectual life was quite modest; for example, there was only one Polish printing press in Galicia, in Zamość, and the only German printing press could exist only because it had leased the right to print the Gubernial ordinances and wanted posters. In 1829, there were already six book printing houses, but one printing house still accounted for about 450,000 inhabitants.
In general, however, the level of education was very low, especially in the countryside. The cause was undoubtedly the school system, which had improved considerably since the beginning of Austrian rule, but was still far from being able to stand comparison with Austria and German countries. There was no compulsory schooling before 1867, but priests and teachers tried to persuade the peasants to send their children to school. During the sowing and harvesting season, however, the children were needed on the farms. In small villages, trivial schools existed at best, where children were given meager instruction in religion and in reading, writing, and arithmetic by assistant teachers. If the community was small and poor and a school was not permitted because of the small number of children, then at least a winter or angle school was maintained, where the so-called teacher, usually a farmer who knew how to read, gathered the children in the winter months alternately in farmhouses and gave them makeshift instruction in reading.
The language of instruction in the towns, until then German, became largely Polish after 1867. The state school law of 1873 resulted in a reorganization of the elementary schools and their increase to twice their size. Of the approximately 5000 elementary schools, 0.5% had German as the language of instruction, from which it can be concluded that, on average in the country, just under half of the German-speaking children were still taught in their mother tongue. No figures are available for instruction in the Ruthenian mother tongue.
Galicia had 28 gymnasia, two real gymnasia, and four real schools around 1890. There were about one million school-age children, but less than half a million children actually attended school. There were 5140 fully employed teachers for every one of them, i.e. one teacher for every 100 or so schoolchildren. There are no statistics on the proportion of illiterates in the first decades. In 1885 there were still no schools in 2376 communities (that was about half). In 1890, 80% of the population did not know how to write. By 1914, the proportion had fallen to 64%.
Jewish Galicians had their own neighborhoods (shtetl) almost everywhere and were almost among themselves in some small towns of Eastern Galicia. Books and newspapers were published in their language, Yiddish. The (assimilated) Jews in the larger towns spoke and wrote German or Polish. Outstanding intellectual impulses came from the Jews of Galicia, not only in the religious and philosophical field – e.g. Martin Buber – but also in literary terms – for example Joseph Roth, Soma Morgenstern, Manès Sperber or Mascha Kaléko – as well as in other fields (natural sciences, film, jurisprudence, etc.). These impulses were based on the fact that scholarship and education had been held in high esteem among Jews for centuries, and families, to the extent that they were financially able to do so, made great efforts to impart education to their children. The Jews were the only group of the population in which no nationalist-particularist perspective was developed, but who regarded the entire monarchy as their homeland. However, Zionism also played a significant role among the Galician Jews, and Lviv was the founding place of the Jewish National Party.
From the 1840s, the Jewish population in Galicia began to increase. The reasons for this were the immigration from Russia and the Russian part of Poland under Emperor Nicholas I, who restricted the rights of Russian and Polish Jews and imposed additional obligations on them. In addition, he established a “settlement area” in several western provinces of Russia, which in the future should have been the only area where Jewish population was allowed. This policy was followed more or less strictly for a long time, which led many Jews to emigrate from Russia. Many went to the USA, and many also to Galicia. One reason for this immigration may also have been that after the revolution of 1848 and the Tolerance Patent of 1867, Jews hardly had to fear any state disadvantages due to their religious confession in Austria, since all religions now had equal rights before the state. In addition, there were lower death rates among Jews in the cholera epidemics of the 1850s.
Many Jews in Galicia assimilated, also because they were not recognized as a separate nation in the Habsburg monarchy. Assimilation was supported by Emperor Joseph II, who promoted a Germanization of the Jews by, among other things, having German-Jewish elementary schools established in which German was spoken instead of Yiddish. In addition, all Galician Jews – like all other Jews in the Habsburg Empire – were given German names. Since the officials in charge of finding names were inspired by colors, the landscape or plant names, many names such as Roth, Blumenthal or Rosenzweig were given.
The economic situation of the mass of Jewish Galicians was just as poor as that of the Ruthenian population. In some cases they lived in abject poverty. The so-called Jewish professions were overcrowded, the numerous dwarf farms were hardly able to feed the mostly large families sufficiently. Therefore, in 1857 2000 Jewish Galicians emigrated, in 1890 there were 7000, the majority of them preferring the United States as their emigration destination. Between 1880 and 1910, a total of 236,504 Jewish Galicians emigrated to the United States, mostly via Hamburg and shipping companies there.
Since the Galician Compromise, the Jews increasingly professed Polish nationality; they assimilated linguistically to the majority population. As a result, the proportion of German-speaking Galicians, most of whom were Jews, declined. In 1880, 5.4% of the population still declared themselves German-speaking; by 1910, only 1.1% did so. A growing proportion of Jews had declared a Polish vernacular. At the same time, the Jewish share of the population in Galicia had remained constant at 11% and the share of German-speaking non-Jews at 0.5%.
In the eastern part of the crown land, Polish landowners ruled over Ukrainian peasants. The Jews, who made up more than ten percent of the population there, had long played a mediating role as merchants and craftsmen between the nobility and large landowners and the poor peasants. The majority of them lived in the cities, where they made up large shares of the population, or in their own villages (shtetls). In the spirit of Polish nationalism, they were now to be pushed back from these key positions in society, the economy was to become more “Polish,” and industrialization, which Galicia had hitherto slept through as a de facto “agricultural colony” of the monarchy, was to be made up for.
The Polish nobility founded cooperatives and syndicates (kółka rolnicze) and supported Poles in establishing their own businesses in order to push back the Jewish manufactories, craftsmen and merchants. At the same time, Jews were systematically disadvantaged economically and subjected to anti-Semitic agitation. The Catholic Church revived old anti-Semitic ritual murder legends. All this increasingly led to a pogrom-like mood among the Polish-Christian population and rising emigration pressure among Jews due to increasing social, economic and political disadvantages and restrictions. From 1871 onward, calls for economic boycotts against Jews became more frequent, and in the 1890s violent attacks against the Jewish population increased.
In the second half of the 19th century, national-Ukrainian parties emerged that advocated the elimination of Polish domination in Austria’s largest crown land. This intensified the antagonisms between Poles and Ruthenians, as the Ukrainians in Old Austria were called in German at the time. At the beginning of the 20th century, there were extensive agrarian strikes in eastern Galicia, in which Polish landowners and Ukrainian peasants confronted each other.
With the introduction of universal, equal and secret suffrage for men to the Chamber of Deputies in Vienna in 1907, Ukrainians managed to significantly increase their political influence. The k.k. Government therefore pressed for a balance between Poles and Ukrainians. The main issues were an increase in the proportion of Ukrainian mandates in the Galician Diet and the establishment of a Ukrainian university in Lviv. The promotion of Ukrainians by the Viennese central government led to growing tensions with the Russian Empire, where since Stolypin’s coup d’état in 1907 massive action was taken against Ukrainians living on Russian territory. Thus, the partial settlement between Ukrainians and Poles in Galicia at the beginning of 1914 led to an escalation of antagonisms between the Dual Monarchy and the Tsarist Empire.
The conflict between Ukrainians and Poles was settled by force of arms on the occasion of the dissolution of Old Austria in the autumn of 1918, with the Polish side preventing the secession of Eastern Galicia.
Galicia had been inhabited since the 13th century by a small number of German merchants from Silesia and Hungary and by Polish Roman Catholics. The lands at that time belonged mainly to Benedictines and Cistercians, as well as princes and large landowners. From the middle of the 14th century, so-called forest Germans settled in the Carpathian foothills, but by the 18th century at the latest, they had been polonized.
After the battles against the Turks and especially the Battle of Kahlenberg in 1683, large parts of the country had to be resettled. The settlement of German population at that time is difficult to determine and controversial.
After the Petersburg Treaties of 1772, which provided for the partition of Poland to Russia, Prussia, and Austria, Galicia came to Austria. This part of the former Poland was Polish in the west (but there were some majority German-speaking places on the western edge around the town of Biała, see Bielitz-Biala Linguistic Island) and Ruthenian populated in the east. This part was settled mainly under the reign of Maria Theresa from 1774 (settlement in the towns) and under Emperor Joseph II from 1781 (settlement also in the countryside, see Josephinian colonization) until 1836 by German
From 1790 onwards, Polish landlords also began to take an interest in accepting settlers, as they had by then recognized the benefits of German and Bohemian settlers for agriculture. Thus, a larger number of private foundations were established, which were located east of the Josephinian settlement border. Settlers were brought into the country, given virgin forest to clear in exchange for a certain fee, and allowed to use the land thus obtained for agriculture as their property. In the period between 1811 and 1848, private landlords increasingly settled farmers and forest workers from Bohemia. For the German minority of the Galician population, the term Galiziendeutsche was used in the 20th century.
Until the end of World War I, Galicia was Austrian crown land, and the various ethnic groups such as Poles, Ukrainians, Jews and Germans lived side by side, even though the villages were largely “national”. Ukrainians and Germans adopted many dishes and customs from each other.
After World War I, Galicia belonged first to the West Ukrainian People’s Republic and then to Poland. German traditions as well as the German language were suppressed by the new Polish state. In 1921 there were 39,810 (0.53%) Germans, ten years later 40,300 (0.47%). In 1937, 28,750 German Protestants of the Evangelical Church of the Augsburg and Helvetic Confession were counted in Lesser Poland (90.3% of the membership).
In 1939, even before the beginning of the Second World War, Galicia was divided between Hitler and Stalin. Even before the end of the war against Poland, a German-Soviet commission was formed and the registration of all persons and their property was carried out. End 1939
Although the country could look back on a long history, it was anything but a unity, neither in ethnic nor in political or confessional terms. Its geographical position within the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy (since 1867) could by no means be described as ideal. Galicia was sealed off from Hungary by the Beskids and the Forest Carpathians, which until then had been poorly developed in terms of transportation, and the common border with the rest of Cisleithania was only a few kilometers long. To the north and east, the country lay unprotected, making it difficult for the military to defend, as became apparent during World War I, despite the construction of fortresses such as Przemyśl.
After 1867, Galicia participated in the constitutional development of Old Austria (December Constitution) on an equal footing, so that all citizens were guaranteed certain basic rights. The uniform Austrian citizenship, which all Galicians possessed, allowed them internal migration to other parts of Cisleithania; a possibility that was heavily used from the beginning of World War I, when Eastern Galicia became a frontline area. The involvement of Polish nobles in the Viennese government was used by them to gain advantages for their clientele. It was not until 1907 that universal male suffrage for the Imperial Council as the central parliament (not for the Galician Diet!) led to democratic approaches.
The contrast between the ruling Poles on the one hand and the mostly servile Ruthenians, as the Ukrainians were called, and the Jewish Galicians on the other had a very problematic effect on the development of the country. The landowning aristocracy wanted to preserve its prerogatives, as in the Kingdom of Hungary; Ruthenians and Jews were disadvantaged economically and in political representation as a matter of course.
Galicia in the First World War
Russia, like many other European powers, had territorial goals or expansionist desires prior to World War I.
Shortly after the war began, Russian troops occupied, among other places, Galicia, which belonged to Austria-Hungary (August 24 to September 11, 1914). Austria-Hungary’s army, after an advance on Galicia’s capital Lviv, was forced to retreat to the Carpathian Mountains in September due to overwhelming Russian superiority (August 26-September 1). To impede the advance of Russian troops, the Austro-Hungarian military resorted to the scorched earth strategy, systematically destroying entire villages and expelling their populations as they retreated, resulting in an enormous wave of refugees.
On September 14, 1914, Russian Foreign Minister Sasonov – with these successes in mind – drew up a 13-point program, which in some respects can be seen as a counterpart to Bethmann Hollweg’s September program.
Sasonov planned primarily territorial cessions of Germany, ostensibly on the basis of the principle of nationality. Russia would annex the lower reaches of the Nyemen (Prussian Lithuania) and the eastern part of Galicia, as well as annex the eastern part of the province of Posen, (Upper) Silesia and western Galicia to Russian Poland. Pan-Slavism certainly played a role in these annexation plans.
In 1917, the Western powers, to their relief, urged Russia to launch an offensive planned by the Russian Minister of War, Kerensky, which began on June 30. After initial successes, the offensive ran aground on July 11. As early as July 19, German and Austro-Hungarian troops counterattacked at Tarnopol. In the process, they succeeded in recapturing eastern Galicia and Bukovina.
On November 6 and 7, 1917, the Bolsheviks took power in Russia (“October Revolution”).
An armistice was first agreed between the Central Powers and Russia on December 15, and peace negotiations opened a week later in Brest-Litovsk, which, initially inconclusive, ended with the Brest-Litovsk Peace Treaty on March 3, 1918.
Restructuring plan not executed in 1918
Within the framework of the Bread Peace of Brest-Litovsk concluded with the Ukrainian People’s Republic on February 9, 1918, Austria-Hungary had undertaken to merge the eastern part of Galicia, inhabited by a majority of Ukrainians, with Bukovina into a separate autonomous crown land by July 31, 1918. The plan was not implemented, and on July 4, 1918, Austria-Hungary terminated the agreement.
After the dissolution of Austria-Hungary
At the end of World War I, Austria-Hungary dissolved: its parts either became independent or joined neighboring states. Galicia left the monarchy on October 30, 1918; the dominant Polish politicians declared the entire former crown land part of the new Polish state. In contrast, the Ukrainians claimed the eastern part of Galicia. Thus, at the end of 1918, the West Ukrainian People’s Republic (Sachidna Ukrainska Narodna Respublika ) was proclaimed in Lviv, which itself had a Polish majority but was located in Ukrainian-populated territory. However, this could not hold against the invading Polish army in the Polish-Ukrainian War, so Eastern Galicia also became Polish in May 1919. This was followed by the Polish-Soviet War in 1920. The three wars, which lasted for six years, destroyed and decimated Eastern Galicia.
The former crown land of Galicia was divided into four voivodeships in the Second Polish Republic: Kraków, Lwów, Stanisławów and Tarnopol, which covered a total area of 79,373 km². The population in 1921 was 7.488 million, of which 4.333 million (57.9%) were Poles, 2.680 million (35.8%) Ukrainians, 428,000 (5.7%) Jews. In 1931 there were 8.509 mill. of whom 5.901 mill. (59 %) were Poles, 2.874 mill. (33.8 %) Ukrainians, 549,000 (6.5 %) Jews.
The name Galicia (Polish: Galicja) was reluctantly used by Poles at that time, in its place the term Lesser Poland was rather preferred, including Małopolska Wschodnia (Eastern Lesser Poland) for Eastern Galicia. The officials were almost exclusively Poles, who often pursued a policy of Polonization on their own, treating Ukrainians as second-class citizens from above. Relations broke down completely in 1930. The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists carried out numerous terrorist attacks. In revenge for these actions, the Polish administration used many pacifications, arrests, and so on, often of innocent Ukrainian people. Tensions intensified after the murders of Tadeusz Hołówko (1931) and especially Bronisław Pieracki (1934). This lasted until the Second World War.
Second World War and consequences
In the course of the Second World War, the territory was initially divided between the German Reich and the Soviet Union. Western Galicia became part of the General Government as the district of Krakow (excluding the districts of Bielitz, Saybusch and Krenau, which were directly annexed to the Third Reich), while the Soviet Union annexed Eastern Galicia to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic up to the San River. After the German attack on the Soviet Union, Eastern Galicia was also incorporated into the General Government (see District of Galicia).
At the Yalta Conference, the Curzon Line was established as the Soviet western border. As a result, two smaller areas of Galicia, which had been Soviet from 1939 to 1941, reverted to Poland. Today the western part of Galicia belongs to Poland, the eastern part with Lviv to Ukraine.
In all countries of Eastern Europe, large ethnic population shifts were part of Soviet postwar policy in 1944-1946. Poles of eastern Galicia were resettled or expelled to the former German territories in western Poland. Conversely, Ukrainians were resettled from Poland to western Ukraine. Thus, Poles disappeared from Eastern Galicia and Volhynia, where they had lived since the late Middle Ages. The population of eastern Galicia was now almost entirely Ukrainian for the first time.
In recent decades, the term Galicja has come back into fashion in southeastern Poland and western Ukraine. People often speak of the “myth of Galicia,” for example, as the Polish or Ukrainian Piedmont (this region played an important role in the reunification of Italy).
49.52199123.245783Coordinates: 49° 31′ N, 23° 15′ E
- Galicia (Eastern Europe)
- Franz Gall: Österreichische Wappenkunde. Handbuch der Wappenwissenschaft. Böhlau, Wien 1992, ISBN 3-205-05352-4, S. 199
- Friedrich Justin Bertuch: Allgemeine geographische Ephemeriden. Band 26, Verlag des Landes-Industrie Comptoirs, Weimar 1808, S. 105
- Krzysztof Lipiński: Auf der Suche nach Kakanien. Literarische Streifzüge durch eine versunkene Welt. Röhrig, Sankt Ingbert 2000, ISBN 3-86110-235-8, S. 25.
- Hipolit Stupnicki: Das Königreich Galizien und Lodomerien. Lemberg 1853, S. 6, Anm., Digitalisat
- ^ (EN) Eleonora Narvselius, Ukrainian Intelligentsia in Post-Soviet Lʹviv: Narratives, Identity, and Power, Lexington Books, 2012, p. 293, ISBN 978-0-7391-6468-6.«[…] Otto von Habsburg […] affermò chiaramente che tutta l’Ucraina appartiene all’Europa centrale, risultando pertanto dubbia la tesi di altri pensatori che ritenevano l’Europa orientale dominata dalla Russia»
- ^ Encyclopediaofukraine.com: Volodymyr Kubiyovych, Yaroslav Pasternak, Illya Vytanovych, Arkadiy Zhukovsky.
- ^ William McGarvey helped develop a rig in the 1860s or 70s which made his Canadian drilling technology and Canadian drillers famous around the world. John Simon Bergheim and William Henry McGarvey had unsuccessfully searched for oil in Germany under the Continental Oil Company of which McGarvey was the director. They left Germany and began their first drilling in Galicia during 1882 under the company name of McGarvey and Bergheim.
- ^ Just after the turn of the century, Bergheim was killed in a taxicab accident in London, England, leaving McGarvey to carry on alone.
- ^ Later, Bergheim and McGarvey bought a number of small oil-producing and refining operations and acquired the Apollo Oil Company of Budapest.
- ^ In 1909, first in the world for oil production was the United States with 183,171,000 barrels, the Russian Empire was second with 65,970,000 barrels, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire was third with 14,933,000 barrels per year due to its significant oil reserves discoveries between 1905 and 1909.
- Eleonora Narvselius (2 de abril de 2012). «Narratives about (Be)longing, Ambiguity, and Cultural Colonization». Ukrainian Intelligentsia in Post-Soviet Lʹviv: Narratives, Identity, and Power. [S.l.]: Lexington Books. p. 293. ISBN 978-0-7391-6468-6. Consultado em 1 de janeiro de 2019
- Larry Wolff (12 de janeiro de 2012). «Mythology and Nostalgia: A Matter of Simple Relativity». The Idea of Galicia: History and Fantasy in Habsburg Political Culture. [S.l.]: Stanford University Press. p. 411. ISBN 978-0-8047-7429-1. Consultado em 1 de janeiro de 2019
- Paul Robert Magocsi (2002). «Jews and Armenians in Central Europe, ca. 1900». Historical Atlas of Central Europe. [S.l.]: University of Toronto Press. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-8020-8486-6. Consultado em 1 de janeiro de 2019
- “Rex+Galiciae+et+Lodomeriae” Die Oesterreichisch-ungarische Monarchie in Wort und Bild, Volume 19 (em alemão). Austria: K.K. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei. 1898. p. 165. Consultado em 1 de dezembro de 2015. Um welchen Preis er dies that, wird nicht überliefert, aber seit dieser Zeit, das ist seit dem Jahre 1206 findet sich in seinen Urkunden der Titel: “Rex Galiciae et Lodomeriae”
- Martin Dimnik (12 de junho de 2003). The Dynasty of Chernigov, 1146–1246. [S.l.]: Cambridge University Press. pp. 266–. ISBN 978-1-139-43684-7. Consultado em 14 de dezembro de 2014